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surface roughness

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of LDI erosion under the influence of a liquid film and surface roughness and on the prediction of LDI erosion. The fundamentals of LDI and processes involved in initiation of erosion are also discussed. empirical erosion model liquid droplet impingement erosion liquid film prediction model...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Both surface finish and surface integrity must be defined, measured, and maintained within specified limits in the processing of any product. Surface texture is defined in terms of roughness, waviness, lay, and flaws. This article illustrates some of the designations of surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... applications, hypodermic needles, foil, fine-mesh screen, and seamless tubing Parts that would be difficult to make by any other means, such as electronic waveguides, regeneratively cooled thrust chambers for rocket engines, musical instruments, Pitot tubes, surface roughness gages, and complex metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... control of aspects of component performance related to surface topography is required (e.g., wear characteristics, friction, reflectivity, resistance to stress failure, or lubrication properties), roughness is analyzed. If control of some aspect of machine tool performance or component performance (e.g...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article discusses the fractal characteristics of fracture surfaces as a means for describing and quantifying irregular, complex curves and surfaces of fractured materials. It describes the important relationship between the profile and surface roughness parameters that yield the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... quantitative geometrical methods for characterizing nonplanar fracture surfaces. Prominent techniques for studying fracture surfaces are based on the projected images, stereoscopic viewing, and sectioning. The article provides information on various roughness and materials-related parameters for profiles and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
..., and chemical contaminants. When inspecting concrete prior to coating installation, three areas of concern exist: surface roughness, moisture content in concrete, and acidity/alkalinity of the surface. The article provides information on the industry standards for assessing surface cleanliness. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Volume) Ion-scattering spectrometry (covered in Division 3, “Mass and Ion Spectrometry,” in this Volume) Contact angle, a surface-sensitive technique for single-layer atom detection and surface free-energy analysis White light interferometry, good for surface roughness analysis and three...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... coating material applied after surface preparation hides the quality (or lack thereof) of the surface preparation. Accordingly, most specifiers require an inspection hold point prior to coating application to verify that the surface preparation (cleanliness and roughness, as appropriate) is properly done...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... process. Pullout of grains can occur, particularly in poorly bonded workpiece materials with coarse grain structure, especially when fine-abrasive wheels are used to obtain ultrasmooth surfaces. Fig. 8 Plot of surface finish (roughness average, R a ) versus downfeed (depth of cut) for three...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... rough and pitted surface caused by preferential acid attack. Sulfuric acid, 35 vol% at 65 °C (150 °F), is recommended for pickling immediately following salt bath conditioning and rinsing to remove molten salt and residual softened scales. An acid of this formula has very little effect on titanium metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Passivation; pickling, that is, acid descaling; electropolishing; and mechanical cleaning are important surface treatments for the successful performance of stainless steel used for piping, pressure vessels, tanks, and machined parts in a wide variety of applications. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... by electropolishing, but electropolished surfaces are usually smoother and brighter. Electropolishing for 4 to 6 min will reduce the surface roughness to between one-third and one-half the original value. Electropolishing and chemical polishing will remove minor scratches and defects, as well as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... cloth belts have been effective. It is common to polish in two or more steps, using a coarser grit initially, such as 60 or 80, to remove gross surface roughness, followed by polishing with 120 or 150 grit to provide a smooth finish. Zirconium and titanium tend to wear the sharp edges of the abrasive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Slow rate Hydrofluoric acid 50% hydrofluoric acid 190–565 g/L (25–75 oz/gal) Powdery dichromate treatment; incomplete MgF 2 film Uneconomical Nitric acid 70% nitric acid 30.0–75.2 g/L (4–10 oz/gal) Slow rate Rapid rate; rough surface Nitric-sulfuric 70% nitric acid 30.0–90.2 g/L (4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Hairline cracks are sometimes present, and patches of scale may break away from the surface. In such cases, the rough underlying metal will not allow an attractive finish to be attained by any pickling method. Table 1 provides selected formulas for pickling nickel alloys, and the table below will aid in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... morphology can also affect surface roughness, which in turn may increase the frictional forces and generate heat at the chip-tool interface. It is known that the relatively smoother PVD TiN-coated carbide tools decrease cutting forces and produce better workpiece surface finishes than CVD-coated tools ( Ref...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... The normal sequence of preparation steps prior to painting or electroplating of zinc alloy die castings includes: Mechanical finishing to smooth parting lines and rough or defective surfaces, plus buffing, if necessary Solvent degreasing or aqueous-based solution degreasing followed by rinsing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
.... Total surface roughness in the image area should not exceed approximately 6 μm for many systems. Typical applications for AFM include: High-resolution three-dimensional surface topography Roughness measurements for polished surfaces Analysis of microscopic phase distribution in polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... transformation. Cleaning of the surface is the most important prerequisite of any coating process. Suitable levels of cleanliness and surface roughness are established by various mechanical and nonmechanical methods. Foundries deliver castings that have been shot or grit blasted (see...