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surface layer activation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... reactants, catalytic materials are often dispersed on a highly porous, high-surface-area, thermally stable carrier. This generally stabilizes the active sites by preventing their migration and coalescence. The most commonly used method for preparing supported metal and metal oxide catalysts involves two...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... that must be defined and controlled. The first concerns the geometric irregularities of the surface, and the second concerns the metallurgical alterations of the surface and the surface layer. This second aspect has been termed surface integrity. Both surface finish and surface integrity must be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... article discusses the procedures used for pickling nickel and nickel alloys. It discusses three different surface conditions for pickling these nickel alloys: bright annealed white surface requiring removal of tarnish by flash pickling; bright annealed oxidized surface requiring removal of a layer of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... two components and the adhesion of coatings: Removal of surface contaminants and weakly bound polymer layers Enhancement of wettability through incorporation of polar groups that facilitate spontaneous spreading of adhesive or matrix resin Formation of functional groups on the surface that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., passivation layers, etc.) Evaporation layers Protective coatings Microelectronic devices From the more than 50 different existing techniques in surface analysis ( Ref 6 ), this article only considers the main methods that have broad applicability and for which commercially available instruments...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... pickling procedures. Abrasive blasting does not remove surface layers contaminated with interstitial elements such as carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. Generally blast cleaning is followed by a pickling step to ensure complete removal of surface contamination and cold-worked layer and to produce a smooth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... brushing resulted in serious defects. A stiff-bristled wire brush removed surface scratches and oxide films, but the surface was pitted by the wire tips. To avoid pitting, softer wire bristles were tried, and the surface of the titanium acquired a burnished appearance. When the surface layers were cold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... activated by strike plating in Wood's nickel bath, and then plated as desired. Anodizing is a process in which a current passes through an electrolyte from an inert cathode to the anode, on which a thin layer of the oxide forms during the process. The thin but dense oxide layer thus formed usually...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... opposite sides of the sample, x = 0 and x′ = L in Eq 6 , and the relevant measurement is t 1/2 , the time at which the back surface temperature reaches half its maximum value: (Eq 9) t 1 / 2 = 1.388 L 2 π 2 α The presence of an additional layer beneath a slab of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... CVD TiN/TiCN layers on a tough cobalt-enriched substrate for interrupted cutting applications such as milling ( Fig. 7 ). The inner CVD layers provide excellent adhesion and wear resistance, and the outer PVD layer offers a hard, fine-grain, crack-free, smooth surface endowed with compressive residual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., goggles, etc. Fire hazard Temperature must not exceed flashpoint of solvent. None None None Slight Type soil removed Both organic and inorganic matter Both organic and inorganic matter Normally used for final cleaning prior to plating to remove slight contamination and to activate surface...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... 15 A/dm 2 (10 to 150 A/ft 2 ) of work area. An electrocleaning operation usually follows an alkaline soak and serves two purposes: (a) it removes any residual soils that may have been left behind by the soak cleaner, and (b) the electrocleaner activates the metal surface—that is, it eliminates the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... addressed appropriately before accessing the structure and performing the work. The safety and health issues associated with surface-preparation activities are not addressed in this article. Prior to beginning surface-preparation operations, a number of steps may be taken to make certain that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... cleaning methods include vapor degreasing, emulsion cleaning, alkaline soak cleaning, and water rinsing. Finally, the magnesium surface must be activated chemically before it can accept either of the recommended metal undercoatings. Organic finishes are used on magnesium alloys to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... as shot blasting. The final step, however, involves elimination of scale and other surface defects through removal of the normal, protective oxide layer and 25 to 40 μm (0.001 to 0.0015 in.) of the substrate metal by pickling the surface in a nitric-hydrofluoric acid (HNO 3 -HF) bath. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001306
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... (electrical steels). This article provides a detailed discussion on the various surface treatments, including cleaning, nitriding, carburizing, coating, and plating, performed on specialty steels. carburizing case hardening cleaning coating corrosion resistance deburring electrical steels ferrous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Cathodic alkaline cleaner (b) Na 2 CO 3 · H 2 O, 40–50%; Na 3 PO 4 · 12 H 2 O, 25– 40%; NaOH, 10–25%; Surface active agent, 1% 60–71 140–160 60–180 2 Anodic cleaner (b) Same as solution 1 60–71 140–160 5–10 3 Bright dip (c) H 2 SO 4 , 65–75%; HNO 3 , 20–35%; HCl, 1.1 g/L ( 1 6...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... activated charcoal are added to the solution to prevent this condition. Abrasive cleaning is used to remove molding, core sand, and investment material from the exterior and interior surfaces of copper-base castings. Selection of the proper kind and particle size of grit determines the type and color...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., it reaches internal recesses to deburr, descale, and clean. Controlled shot peening can be used to smooth rough or defective castings and to remove fins, burrs, and flash from the surface ( Ref 5 ). This process plastically deforms and densifies the casting surface and near-surface layers. That...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... in industrial practice and in research activities. Lapping is the process of finishing work materials by applying a loose abrasive slurry between a work material and a closely fitting surface, called a lapping plate. When loose abrasive is used to machine the work material, it may...