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surface imperfections

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Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 12 Surface imperfections caused by (a) poor shot peening conditions that resulted in deep imperfections compared with (b) normal peening conditions More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... surface imperfections with varying degrees of severity. Seams, laps, and slivers are probably the most common defects in hot-rolled bars and shapes. Another condition that could be considered a surface defect is decarburization. Hot-rolled steel bars and shapes can be produced to chemical composition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... composition, and relative freedom from detrimental surface imperfections. Cold drawing significantly increases machinability, tensile and yield strengths of steel bars. Two special die-drawing processes have been developed to give improved properties over those offered by standard drawing practices...
Book Chapter

By R.J. Glodowski
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... for the manufacture of carbon steel wire is produced with manufacturing controls and inspection procedures intended to ensure the degree of soundness and freedom from injurious surface imperfections necessary for specific applications. This article also describes the various quality descriptors applicable to the rods...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for specific applications. Dimensions and Tolerances The nominal dimensions of hot rolled steel bars and shapes are designated in inches or millimeters with applicable tolerances, as shown in ASTM specifications A 6 and A 29. Surface Imperfections Surface Seams or Laps Surface seams or laps...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., bending, torsion). Finally, the factors influencing the appearance of a fracture surface and various imperfections or stress raisers are described, followed by a root-cause failure analysis case history to illustrate some of these fractography concepts. brittle fracture crack nucleation crack...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... performed at room temperature or at elevated temperatures, makes them common sources of surface discontinuities, such as laps, seams, and cold shuts. Oxides, slivers or chips of the base material, or foreign material also can be embedded into the surface during working. These surface imperfections produce...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of the imperfections that have been discussed earlier are easily detected with visual inspection. Visual inspection can also detect other imperfections, such as noncontinuous fillets; base-metal erosion; undercutting and unsatisfactory surface appearance, which includes excessive filler-metal spread; excessive surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... etching and acid etching of aluminum. Alkaline etching reduces or eliminates surface scratches, nicks, extrusion die lines, and other imperfections. Acid etching can be done without heavy smut problems, particularly on aluminum die castings. Hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, nitric, phosphoric, chromic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of the base material, or foreign material also can be embedded into the surface during working. These surface imperfections can produce notches of unknown severity that act as stress raisers, which may adversely affect the performance of the component in service. Subsurface and core discontinuities may...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Fig. 286, 287, 288 Hydrogen embrittlement fracture of AISI 1074 part. The part was formed in the annealed condition, quenched and tempered to 48 HRC, and then electroplated. A surface imperfection in the steel was initially thought to have played a key role in the fracture. However, SEM examination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... in a more consistent and uniform product. Continuous casting does create the opportunity for types of surface or near-surface imperfections that can have an impact on electropolishing behavior. Static casting of ingots can result in similar problems with cleanliness. Although electropolishing imperfections...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
..., however, require further processing such as heat treatment. Plate Imperfections Certain characteristic surface imperfections that can weaken the plate may appear on hot-finished steel; chemical segregation that can alter properties across the section may also be present. Some of these imperfections...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 60 Dendritic shrinkage porosity in aluminum alloy A356. Shrinkage porosity is a common imperfection in cast components and also a common location for fracture initiation. (a) Fracture surface from a fatigue specimen. 30×. (b) Same specimen as in part (a) but at lower magnification (13 More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 60 Dendritic shrinkage porosity in aluminum alloy A356. Shrinkage porosity is a common imperfection in cast components and a common location for fracture initiation. (a) Fracture surface from a fatigue specimen. Original magnification: 30×. (b) Same specimen as in part (a) but at lower More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is comprised of (a) aluminum and (b) magnesium. Scan was taken from the image in Fig. 2(b) Example 3: Preexisting Hot Mill Rolling Crack Figure 4 shows a surface flaw deep enough to cause a coil spring to fail early; this surface imperfection was inherited from the raw material ( Ref 5...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... geometric factors and materials aspects that influence the stress-strain behavior and fracture of ductile metals. It highlights fractures arising from manufacturing imperfections and stress raisers. The article presents a root cause failure analysis case history to illustrate some of the fractography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... at the surface (at positions from approximately 11 to 4 o’clock), and the radial lines grew together rather than fanned out as the crack propagated. The dark region at 9 o’clock is not an imperfection but rather contained within a rougher region with surface steps, indicative of the last region of fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... marks or nicks, and quench cracks resulting from heat treating operations. Frequently, stress concentrators are introduced during hot or cold forming of shafts; these include surface discontinuities, such as laps, seams, pits and forging laps, and internal imperfections, such as bursts. Internal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... propagation direction parallel to shear lips Mixed-mode fracture (incomplete constraint) Tightly closed crack on surface Possible cyclic loading Possible processing imperfection, e.g., from shot peening, quench cracks Radial marks and chevrons (v-shape) Point toward crack initiation...