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surface flaws

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Visual inspection is a nondestructive testing technique that provides a means to detect and examine a variety of surface flaws, such as corrosion, contamination, surface finish, and surface discontinuities. This article discusses the equipment used to aid visual inspection, including...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Visual inspection is a nondestructive testing technique that provides a means to detect and examine a variety of surface flaws, such as corrosion, contamination, surface finish, and surface discontinuities. This article discusses the equipment used to aid visual inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006467
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... frequency, MHz 10 and 5 Number of rotations of probe, rev/min 1000 Signal transmit Noncontact rotation transmit Marker One each for near-surface flaw and inside flaw Source: Ref 1 Specifications of an ultrasonic flaw-detection system for cold-drawn hexagonal bars Table 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... mm in. Surface flaw ≤0.087 ≤6.4 ≤0.25 Subsurface flaw ≤0.143 ≤6.4 ≤0.25 Note: t is the thickness of the weld excluding any allowable reinforcement. For a butt weld joining two members having different thickness at the weld, t is the thinner of these two thicknesses. If a full...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... by a flaw and the echo from the back surface. Flaw sizes are estimated by comparing the signal amplitudes of reflected ultrasound from an interface (either within the testpiece or at the back surface) with the amplitude of ultrasound reflected from a reference reflector of known size or from the back...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of the electronic equipment. It describes the techniques used for the identification and characterization of flaws, namely, surface (Rayleigh) wave and ultrasonic polar scan techniques. References References 1. Krautkrämer J. and Krautkrämer H. , Ultrasonic Testing of Materials , 4th ed...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... of the crescent-shaped flaw. Note mirror region around the fracture origin. SEM. 67× Fig. 8 Fracture surface of glazed porcelain. Fracture origin is a quartz grain between the two large bubbles in the glaze. SEM Fig. 9 Deceleration scarp and timing marks on the fracture surface of a glass...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... measurements. All magnetic flaw-detection methods rely in some way on the detection and measurement of the magnetic flux leakage field near the surface of the material, which is caused by the presence of the flaw. Material properties characterization methods rely on bulk measurements of the hysteretic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and characterization and the other aimed at material properties measurements. All magnetic flaw-detection methods rely in some way on the detection and measurement of the magnetic flux leakage field near the surface of the material, which is caused by the presence of the flaw. Material properties characterization...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... conducting materials; limited penetration depth Heat exchanger tubes for wall thinning and cracks Liquid penetrant Surface openings due to cracks, porosity, seams, or folds Inexpensive, easy to use, readily portable, sensitive to small surface flaws Flaw must be open to surface. Not useful on porous...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is the most widely used ultrasonic technique. Flaws are detected and their sizes estimated by comparing the amplitude of a reflected echo from an interface (either within the test piece or at the back surface) with the amplitude of an echo reflected from a reference interface of known size or from the back...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Ultrasonic inspection is a nondestructive method in which beams of high-frequency acoustic energy are introduced into a material to detect surface and subsurface flaws, to measure the thickness of the material, and to measure the distance to a flaw. This article provides...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Inexpensive, easy to use, readily portable, sensitive to small surface flaws Flaw must be open to surface. Not useful on porous materials or rough surfaces Turbine blades for surface cracks or porosity; grinding cracks Magnetic particles Leakage magnetic flux caused by surface or near-surface cracks...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., Research Project 1237-1, General Electric Company, Research and Development Center , Schenectady, NY , August 1984 23. Kumar V. and German M.D. , “Further Developments in Elastic-Plastic Fracture Analysis of Through-Wall Flaws and Surface Flaws in Cylinders,” Final Report 87-SED...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002386
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... ) in terms of applied stress (σ) for (a) a center-cracked plate and (b) an edge-cracked plate under uniform tension Fig. 11 Relationship between actual flaw dimensions and the parameter a for surface flaws Fig. 15 Elliptical and circular cracks. (a) Tensile loading and crack plane. (b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Local volume >~0.3 mm (0.012 in.) Local volume >~0.3 mm (0.012 in.) Volume analysis (but limited by frequency selection) Surface flaws and edges may not be detected. Resonance inspection method 2 Resonance/microphone, piezo sensor, laser vibrometer FFT/preselection of characteristic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... cantilever beam (DCB) tensile loading. (d) DCB constant bending moment loading. (e) DCB wedge loading. (f) Tapered DCB. (g) Chevron notch short rod. (h) Chevron notch short bar. (i) Chevron notch bending. (j) Double torsion (DT). (k) Three-point bending with controlled surface flaw (CSF). P , load. Adapted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... discontinuities indicative of defects Postmanufacturing inspections, in-service inspections looking for dimensional anomalies, color variation, cracks, pits, etc. Only sensitive to surface flaws Low cost, intuitive. May be enhanced with PT, MT, IR, UV, laser reference lines, video, and magnifying lenses All...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for surface and subsurface flaws that may occur in wrought products. For example, inclusions ( Fig. 2a ) and seams ( Fig. 2h ) are commonly used terms to describe imperfections in wrought form, as discussed in more detail in this section. These imperfections, whether at or the below the surface, can adversely...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of roughness and waviness on a surface with unidirectional lay and one flaw. See Fig. 2 for definition of R a and waviness height. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 2 Some commonly used designations of surface texture. (a) R a . (b) R q . (c) R y or R max . (d) R z . (e) W. Source: Ref 1...