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surface flattening

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006370
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...Abstract Abstract This article describes friction force as a function of normal force in dry forming. It focuses on metal forming operations usually classified as cold working and hot working based on metallurgical considerations. The article discusses surface flattening and roughening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... in a narrow strip (<50 mm, or 2 in.). Auxiliary side push rolls near the entry side of a flattener are used for camber correction in a narrow strip (<100 mm, or 4 in. wide with thickness>0.6 mm, or 0.025 in.). For a coil set strip, length difference between the top and bottom surfaces diminishes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... not melt and simply become embedded in the deposit. Fig. 10 Splat results when a microscopic droplet of molten coating material strikes a surface, flattens out, and solidifies. As a splat solidifies, heat is lost to the substrate beginning at the center, which strikes the surface first...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
..., or the outer tube surface may flatten in the bend area. The need for a mandrel depends on the tube and bend ratios. The tube ratio is D/t , where D is the OD and t is the wall thickness. The bend ratio is R/D , where R is the radius of bend measured to the centerline. Table 3 can be used...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is established by trial. If the mandrel extends too far, it can create a bulge at the bend; if the mandrel does not extend far enough, wrinkles can form or the outer tube surface can flatten in the bend area. Bending Tubing without a Mandrel It is cheaper to bend tubing without a mandrel. Trial bending...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001376
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... 0.025 mm (0.001 in.) to over 1 m (40 in.). The size limits are generally mandated by component metal manufacturability and transport requirements. Configuration Limitations Explosion welding is limited to the bonding of flat surfaces or coaxial cylindrical surfaces. It is ideally suited...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005134
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... kN (75 tonf) mechanical press, a double bend (joggle) was made in the spokes, and the short straight surface between the two bends was flattened to 6.4 mm ( 1 4 in.) thick. The wheel rim was then welded to the spokes, as shown in Fig. 10(d) . Next, the assembly was loaded into another...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... it is difficult to avoid marring coated surfaces during forming. However, nonmetallic inserts at appropriate points in the straightener, feeder, and forming tools can be used to reduce tool marks. Springback must be considered in bending such materials as stainless steel, phosphor bronze, certain grades...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... or molten state are accelerated toward the substrate. The particles or droplets strike the surface, flatten, and form thin platelets (splats) that conform, adhere, and interlock with the roughened surface irregularities and with each other. As the sprayed particles impinge on the substrate, they cool...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001368
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...Abstract Abstract High-frequency (HF) welding is a welding process in which the heat source used to melt the joining surfaces is obtained from HF alternating current (ac) resistance heating. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages and applications of HF welding. It describes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... sheet is the deviation (parallel to the stock surface) of a side edge from a straight line that extends to both ends of the side, and it is customarily limited to 6.4 mm ( 1 4 in.) for any 2.5 m (96 in.) length or fraction thereof. Flatness, or the degree to which a surface of a flat product...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... it necessary to anneal the parts before flattening and restriking. The part contour and dimensions were extremely difficult to maintain. The surface finish was 0.4 μm (15 μin.). A pack anneal was used to minimize distortion and scale. The sequence of operations to make the part was: Shear strips to 1.2 m...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... information on the effects of alloying elements on alpha/beta transformation. The article also discusses the heat treating procedures, and the furnaces used for heat treating titanium and titanium alloys. aging alloying differential thermal analysis method flattening heat treatment heat-treating...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the principles of the press-brake forming process and its applicability with an example. It describes the types of press brakes and examines some considerations, which help in the selection of machine. The article provides information on flattening dies...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... welding. (a) Electrical circuit loop is completed when current travels through embossed projection contact points. (b) Addition of pressure after welding current is turned off causes plastic deformation that flattens the projections. Fig. 1 Setup for resistance spot welding. Sectional view...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... factors plus the yield strength of the material. Extended-surface (finned) tubing is sometimes used to provide the proper thermal conductance for effective transfer of heat from gas to liquid or from liquid to liquid. Fins on much of the tubing used in air coolers and hydrogen coolers are applied...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...-pressure water is also sometimes used to loosen scale, especially at hard-to-reach locations, such as the inside diameter of a mandrel forging. Failure to remove the scale causes it to be forged in, resulting in pits and pockets on the forged surfaces. The total amount of scale formed in open-die forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) Correct replacement part Fig. 9 Two hardened-and-tempered 1070 steel hold-down clamps. Clamp (a) was acceptable. Clamp (b) was slack quenched because of faulty loading practice (stacking), and it failed by distortion (flattening) because of the resultant mixed microstructure. Fig. 4...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...°. Investigation Visual examination disclosed that the side-rail extrusions, which had the I-beam shape shown in Fig. 3(a) , had failed by plastic buckling, with only slight surface cracking in the most severely deformed areas. There were no visible defects in materials or workmanship, and all dimensions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... these factors leads to a function known as the time of wetness, during which a film of liquid is present on the surface of the steel. Corrosion occurs by an aqueous corrosion mechanism during the time the film is present on the steel surface. The thinner the film, the easier is the diffusion of oxygen through...