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surface defects

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... The normal sequence of preparation steps prior to painting or electroplating of zinc alloy die castings includes: Mechanical finishing to smooth parting lines and rough or defective surfaces, plus buffing, if necessary Solvent degreasing or aqueous-based solution degreasing followed by rinsing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... for heavy welds. The first polishing operation should be done with very fine grit to remove all surface defects and give a base upon which to build the final finish. Wheels of No. 60 to 80 grit are usually required to remove heavy oxide or deep defects. The first operation should be done dry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... performance was best suited to detection of large, near-surface defects ( Ref 3 , 4 ). In the past decade, that picture has changed dramatically. Advances in IR camera technology and the availability of small, powerful computer platforms, combined with dedicated signal processing and excitation methods, have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... as shot blasting. The final step, however, involves elimination of scale and other surface defects through removal of the normal, protective oxide layer and 25 to 40 μm (0.001 to 0.0015 in.) of the substrate metal by pickling the surface in a nitric-hydrofluoric acid (HNO 3 -HF) bath. The...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... The normal sequence of preparation steps prior to painting or electroplating of zinc alloy die castings includes: Mechanical finishing to smooth parting lines and rough or defective surfaces, plus buffing, if necessary Solvent degreasing or aqueous-based solution degreasing followed by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... analytical instrument and the material surfaces. They fit well in the scope of this Volume because the methods provide information about composition, structure, and defects. Further, they are focused on determining and revealing characteristics of surface layers of materials that are less than 100 nm. They...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., machining, or heat treating. Shot peening is especially effective in reducing the harmful stress concentration effects of notches, fillets, forging pits, surface defects, and the heat-affected zones of weldments. The surface tensile stresses that cause SCC can be effectively overcome by the compressive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... tensile loading, and cracks will propagate from a surface defect or other stress riser. Shot peening prevents these failures by creating compressive stress layers in the surfaces of parts. As a part is loaded, its critical surface area will not develop tensile stresses until the shot-peen-induced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... surface defects before cold rolling. Originally, strip was ground on standard strip grinders, using various oil lubricants; however, oils contributed to fire hazard and several grinding machines were partially or wholly destroyed when the oil ignited. When titanium was ground with aluminum oxide belts, a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... cleaning most frequently used on magnesium alloys. Many foundries use flint silica sand with a fineness of 25 or 35 AFS. Occasionally, however, steel grit is used. Usually, castings are blasted immediately after shakeout to reveal any major surface defects. After gates, sprues, and risers are sawed off and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... by electropolishing, but electropolished surfaces are usually smoother and brighter. Electropolishing for 4 to 6 min will reduce the surface roughness to between one-third and one-half the original value. Electropolishing and chemical polishing will remove minor scratches and defects, as well as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... initiating surface preparation, but others may not be detected until they are lifted by abrasive blast cleaning ( Fig. 6 ). These steel defects must be removed, typically by grinding. If discovered after blast cleaning, the affected area may have to be abrasive blast cleaned again after grinding is completed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract The classes of tool materials for machining operations are high-speed tool steels, carbides, cermets, ceramics, polycrystalline cubic boron nitrides, and polycrystalline diamonds. This article discusses the expanding role of surface engineering in increasing the manufacturing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Ceramics usually require some form of machining prior to use to meet dimensional and surface quality standards. This article focuses on abrasive machining, particularly grinding, and addresses common methods and critical process factors. It covers cylindrical, centerless, and disk...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001306
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... (electrical steels). This article provides a detailed discussion on the various surface treatments, including cleaning, nitriding, carburizing, coating, and plating, performed on specialty steels. carburizing case hardening cleaning coating corrosion resistance deburring electrical steels ferrous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article provides a brief review of the classification and characteristics of cast irons. It describes the processes used to clean iron castings, including mechanical cleaning and finishing and nonmechanical cleaning. The article discusses surface treatments used to extend casting...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract The International Committee of Foundry Technical Associations has identified seven basic categories of casting defects: metallic projections, cavities, discontinuities, defective surfaces, incomplete casting, incorrect dimension, and inclusions or structural anomalies. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... hot tearing. Inclusions are responsible for many serious surface defects and internal quality problems in cast products. They arise from foreign particles, such as eroded sand particles, and impurities remaining in the liquid metal after upstream refining...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... coating due to the many potential factors that may be involved. These could include formulation, surface preparation, application, drying and curing times and conditions, and environmental exposure, with more than one contributing factor often being involved. Failures and defects can manifest themselves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... depth, which is defined as the distance from the surface to the depth with 63% or 1/ e of the intensity of the reflection line, is calculated for Ω- and Ψ-diffractometers, respectively: τ Ω = ( sin 2 θ − sin 2 ψ ) / [ 2 μ ( sin θ cos ψ ) ] τ Ψ...