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surface crystallography

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) is a technique for investigating the crystallography of surfaces and overlayers adsorbed on surfaces. This article describes the principles of diffraction from surfaces, and elucidates the method of sample preparation to achieve diffraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) is a technique for investigating the crystallography of surfaces and overlayers adsorbed on surfaces. This article provides a brief account of LEED, covering the principles and measurements of diffraction from surfaces. Some of the processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... cantilever probes made of various materials Laser light Images of surface topographical features or other near-field and far-field interactions between probe and sample surface 0.2–10 nm 10–80 pm Biological molecules, biomaterials, cells, crystallography, electrochemistry, polymer chemistry, thin-film...
Image
Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 2 Electron backscatter diffraction maps obtained from a twin roll cast Fe-Al-Ni alloy that was annealed at 1000 °C (1830 °F). (a) Inverse pole figure map with respect to the surface normal. (b) Phase discrimination map with NiAl shown in blue, Ni 3 Al in red, and NiAl martensite in yellow More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article discusses the techniques and applications of synchrotron x-ray diffraction, providing information on x-ray generation, monochromation, and crystallography. X-ray diffraction techniques covered include single-crystal and powder diffraction. Some of the factors involved...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Laser light Images of surface topographical features or other near-field and far-field interactions between probe and sample surface 0.2–10 nm 10–80 pm Biological molecules, biomaterials, cells, crystallography, electrochemistry, polymer chemistry, thin-film studies, nanomaterials, nanotechnology...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of crystallography and the symmetry of crystalline substances, as well as some aspects and formulas of XRD theory ( Ref 1 – 13 ). Crystal Symmetry The crystalline state of a substance is characterized by the three-dimensional periodicity of atomic and molecular arrangement. This feature underlies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... resistance of stainless steels is based on the protective nature of the surface oxide film. The physical and chemical properties of the oxide film and the service environment determine the corrosion resistance of the alloy. Additional details on the stainless steels are presented in the following articles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., “Sample Preparation and Mounting,” in this Volume, and viewed normal to the xz or yz plane. If the features that are desired to be analyzed are noticeable on the surface of a composite, such as a fracture area, this area is ideally centered in the section that is taken. This provides assurance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., and applications and interpretation of micro-XRD. micro X-ray diffraction XRD detectors Overview Introduction X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been a fundamental tool in the field of crystallography as applied to practically every industrial sector for over a century. Conventionally, XRD...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., identification is performed through the specific crystallography. Figure 2 is an example of EBSD mapping of a multiphase Fe-Al-Ni alloy that was twin roll cast and then annealed ( Ref 1 ). Figure 2(a) is an inverse pole figure (IPF) map with respect to the sample surface normal. The orientation data...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of the martensite transformation: orientation relationships between parent and product phases and surface tilting around the martensite crystal. Due to the absence of diffusion in the transformation, the composition of the parent austenite and product martensite are the same. Additionally, the martensite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in nonferrous systems. bainite ferrous metals nonferrous metals surface relief BAINITE describes the resultant microstructure in steels of the decomposition of austenite (γ) into ferrite (α) and cementite (Fe 3 C) in the temperature range above the martensitic transformation and below...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article discusses the physical metallurgy of cast cobalt alloys with an emphasis on the crystallography, compositions, phases and microstructure, and properties. Cobalt alloys are cast by several different foundry methods. The article describes the argon-oxygen decarburization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... , An Introduction to the Methods of Optical Crystallography , Holt Rhinehart and Winston , 1961 • Briggs D. and Seah M.P. , Practical Surface Analysis , John Wiley & Sons , 1983 , 10.1016/0002-9610(83)90338-0 • Cullity B.D. , Elements of X-Ray Diffraction , Addison-Wesley...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003735
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of atoms across the interface between parent and product phases. Furthermore, while surface upheaval is commonly observed during massive transformations due to the mechanical deformation caused by volumetric differences between parent and product, no evidence has been presented in the literature...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Microstructural analysis is the combined characterization of the morphology, elemental composition, and crystallography of microstructural features through the use of a microscope. This article reviews three types of the most commonly used electron microscopies in metallurgical studies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract This article describes the integration of thermodynamic modeling, mobility database, and phase-transformation crystallography into phase-field modeling and its combination with transformation texture modeling to predict phase equilibrium, phase transformation, microstructure evolution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... image. Problems arise for proteins, with their unusually large unit cells and the possible large sensitivity to radiation. Protein crystallography beamlines, based on large, fast, and accurate detectors, are designed to perform automatic single-crystal studies on protein crystals as small as a few cubic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... reactions atomistic modeling shear modulus bonding energy INTERFACE REACTIONS cannot be understood and modeled without knowing the structure of interfaces. However, there are an infinite number of possible interface structures, depending on the interface crystallography and physical parameters...