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superplastic deformation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... nucleation cracklike interface cavities cavity growth large-faceted cavities cavity initiation creep cavitation superplastic deformation hot deformation process modeling THE FORMATION AND GROWTH of internal voids in metallic alloys are of considerable concern in components produced by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... in fine-grain metals has encompassed many ideas, such as the diffusional creep, dislocation creep with diffusional accommodation at grain boundaries, and concepts of grain-mantle deformation. The article concludes with information on the kinetics of superplastic deformation processes, including low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... strain hardening and its effects on the mechanical properties of titanium alloys. It also discusses the factors that influence the superplasticity of titanium alloys. crystallographic texture deformation grain growth recrystallization strain hardening strengthening superplasticity titanium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... microstructural or mechanistic description. As a rule of thumb, elongation in excess of 200% is termed as superplasticity. Over the years, a number of superplasticity models have been proposed. A majority of experimental evidences suggests that grain-boundary sliding (GBS) is the dominant deformation mechanism...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... important to note that the mechanisms of diffusion creep and grain-boundary sliding may occur during hot working and superplastic deformation processes. Plastic deformation in crystals can occur from the shear motion (slip) of dislocations, which are internal line defects in a crystal...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... the neck to extend to strains far exceeding the strains possible in the elastic deformation region. After necking, and depending on the crystal structure of the metal, it is possible to observe strains as high as 50% ( Ref 1 ). Under specialized conditions, superplasticity can give much higher strains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article examines the deformation processes in metal-forming operations and considers the effects introduced by scale factors when microforming. It discusses the process parameters and variables affecting surface interactions, including temperature, speed, reduction, stiffness, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., although the strain rates in the deformation volumes immediately beneath the rollers are higher than those generally reported for superplasticity of titanium alloys in both pure tension and compression (∼10 −3 s −1 ) ( Ref 5 ). Fig. 12 (0001) Pole figures of αTi grains within the roll formed VT25...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... forming, explosive forming, electromagnetic forming, and superplastic forming. auxiliary equipment blanking contour roll forming deep drawing die materials drop hammer forming electromagnetic forming explosive forming fine-edge blanking forming by multiple-slide machines forming machines...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Forging of nickel-base alloys results in geometries that reduce the amount of machining to obtain final component shapes and involves deformation processing to refine the grain structure of components or mill products. This article discusses the heating practice, die materials, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... fracture, ε f The ease with which a metal yields plastically or flows is an important factor in workability. If a metal can be deformed at low stress, as in superplastic deformation, then the stress levels throughout the deforming workpiece are low, and fracture is less likely. The dominant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... article “Dies and Die Materials for Hot Forging” in this Volume). Deformation mechanisms during hot working include microstructural processes such as: Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) Superplastic deformation Dynamic recovery Void formation Flow instability processes (such...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... processed metals and alloys with submicrometer structures ( Ref 25 ). Although high diffusivity can reduce thermal stability of processed materials, it provides an increase in the ability for superplastic forming ( Ref 21 ). Also, enhanced diffusivity together with simple shear deformation mode has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article reviews the bulk deformation processes for various aluminide and silicide intermetallic alloys with emphasis on the gamma titanium aluminide alloys. It summarizes the understanding of microstructure evolution and fracture behavior during thermomechanical processing of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the factors that determine the extent of deformation a metal can withstand before cracking or fracture occurs. It informs that workability depends on the local conditions of stress, strain, strain rate, and temperature in combination with material factors. The...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... environmental protection applications. This article discusses the material characteristics, phases, structures, and systems of superalloys. It describes the processing of superalloys, including primary and secondary melting, deformation processing (conversion), powder processing, investment casting, and joining...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the amount shown on the curve. An example of the variation of the true stress versus true strain for Al-8090 alloy deformed under superplastic conditions ( T = 520 °C, ε ˙ = 7.8 × 10 − 4 s − 1 ) is shown in Fig. 14 ( Ref 16 ). Under these conditions, it is apparent that the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of the material deformation resistance. A limitation of elevated-temperature tensile testing is necking, which prematurely limits or obscures the strain to which the specimen may be deformed. Elevated-temperature tensile testing is often used to assess superplasticity by determining the uniform...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... in such situations are enhanced by approximately an order of magnitude relative to those for static coarsening. The effect is most noticeable at strain rates that characterize superplastic (or near-superplastic) flow, that is, ∼10 −4 to 10 −3 s −1 . Under these conditions, the time of deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... A number of factors affect the deformability of a material such as strain rate, stress state, temperature, and flow characteristics of the material, which are affected by crystal structure and microstructure. Changes in stress state via the superimposition of hydrostatic pressure can clearly exert a...