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supercritical water oxidation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...% Fig. 4 Potential-pH diagram for iron in supercritical aqueous solution at 400 °C (750 °F) and 50 MPa (500 bar), showing the approximate regions in potential-pH space for the operation of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) reactors and supercritical thermal power plants. Source: Adapted from Ref...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., water walls; P, pipes and headers; T, superheater and reheater tubes. (b) Metal temperatures are based on creep limitations. Source: Ref 8 , 9 Cost calculations comparing subcritical and supercritical plants at 80% capacity Table 10 Cost calculations comparing subcritical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... combines traditional operational and support cost elements with an expert analysis system and demonstrates built-in flexibility and ease of updating with new information. Specialized environments address an eclectic mix of environments that are important to human activities. Water is supercritical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... the coal ash corrosion that occurs at a rate near the peak of the bell-shape curve ( Fig. 5 ). Under these conditions, few commercially available alloys can meet the stringent requirements. See the article “Corrosion in Supercritical Water—Ultrasupercritical Environments for Power Production...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... ) is the process of cleaning a hard surface by forcing small solid particles across that surface at high speeds propelled by an air stream or water jet. The contaminants are removed from the part surface by the resulting impact force. orazon (cubic boron nitride), ceramic, corundum (alumina or aluminum oxide), dry...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Then, it is placed into the pressure vessel, which is filled with a fluid (normally a soluble oil-water mixture), and is hydrostatically pressed. Pressures typically vary between 21 and 690 MPa (3 and 100 ksi) ( Ref 11 , 12 ). After pressing, the mold is removed from the pressure vessel, and the pressed component...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...). This alloy was developed in 1905 and is still used in a wide variety of applications, such as seawater, non-oxidizing acids, hydrocarbon processing, water-fed heat exchangers, neutral and alkaline salts and alkali process equipment, industrial plumbing and valves, marine fixtures, petrochemical equipment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... atmospheres can result in the reduction of the majority of the oxides. The gas atomization process also has made improvements through the use of special atomization nozzle designs to improve the yields of finer powder, though the yields are not as high as the very high pressure water-atomization process...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... excellent resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion in high-temperature brines, which sometimes attack commercially pure titanium, and also has better resistance to oxidizing environments such as nitric acid. Titanium is subject to crevice corrosion in brine solutions containing oxidizers. Although...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... is well documented ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 ). There are strong synergistic effects and interactions with metal oxides. However, pure water and wet steam can also cause SCC and CF of turbine blade...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... to facilitate cold working or machining, to improve mechanical or electrical properties, or to promote dimensional stability. This article, using iron-carbon phase diagram, describes the types of annealing processes, namely, subcritical annealing, intercritical annealing, supercritical or full annealing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...: chelants and sequestrants. Chelants complex the metallic ion into a ring structure that is water soluble and resistant to precipitation. Sequestrants complex the metallic ion into a structure that is water soluble and resistant to precipitation, but has no ring structure. Oxidizing agents are used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Suggested maximum operating temperatures for select alloys in continuous, isothermal oxidizing atmospheres without excessive scaling Table 1 Suggested maximum operating temperatures for select alloys in continuous, isothermal oxidizing atmospheres without excessive scaling Alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... failure analysis fatigue fire-side corrosion power plants stress-corrosion cracking tube rupture water-side corrosion FAILURES IN BOILERS and other equipment in stationary and marine power plants that use steam as the working fluid are discussed in this article. The discussion is mainly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... exposure to air with a nanoscale oxide layer that is hard and virtually impermeable to oxygen and water. Such nanofilms are very important and can greatly influence the properties, including corrosion resistance, of the base substrate. Physical and chemical vapor depositions are commonly used...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Suggested maximum temperatures for various alloys in continuous, isothermal oxidizing atmospheres without excessive scaling Table 1 Suggested maximum temperatures for various alloys in continuous, isothermal oxidizing atmospheres without excessive scaling Alloy designation Temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... 0.5 12 17.5 … … … … 0.02 N … … … 128 18.6 78 11.3 (a) OQ, oil quench; AC, air cool. Source: Ref 21 Cyclic oxidation resistance of ferritic stainless steels Table 5 Cyclic oxidation resistance of ferritic stainless steels Specimens were exposed for 100 h in air...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... 13 ). Corrosion rates were reduced by a factor of 3 compared to the rate in H 2 SO 4 alone. When only HCl or water was added, the corrosion rate was reduced only slightly. When HNO 3 was added alone, the corrosion rate was the same as when HCl and HNO 3 were both added. Thus, the oxidizing effect...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.9781627082006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., providing high stiffness and force control for adhesion/indentation measurements Fig. 1 The adhesion between two rough surfaces increases suddenly if the relative humidity (RH) rises and the capillary-condensed water spreads across the contact. Source: Ref 13 Fig. 2 Principle...