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supercritical water

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...% Fig. 4 Potential-pH diagram for iron in supercritical aqueous solution at 400 °C (750 °F) and 50 MPa (500 bar), showing the approximate regions in potential-pH space for the operation of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) reactors and supercritical thermal power plants. Source: Adapted from Ref...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., water walls; P, pipes and headers; T, superheater and reheater tubes. (b) Metal temperatures are based on creep limitations. Source: Ref 8 , 9 Cost calculations comparing subcritical and supercritical plants at 80% capacity Table 10 Cost calculations comparing subcritical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... combines traditional operational and support cost elements with an expert analysis system and demonstrates built-in flexibility and ease of updating with new information. Specialized environments address an eclectic mix of environments that are important to human activities. Water is supercritical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... the coal ash corrosion that occurs at a rate near the peak of the bell-shape curve ( Fig. 5 ). Under these conditions, few commercially available alloys can meet the stringent requirements. See the article “Corrosion in Supercritical Water—Ultrasupercritical Environments for Power Production...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... in Supercritical Water—Ultrasupercritical Environments for Power Production” in this Volume. Steam is often extracted from the turbine for heating of feedwater and used in industrial processes. It is exhausted as wet subatmospheric steam, with up to 12% moisture ( Fig. 7 ), into a condenser or at higher than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... for phosphating and precleaning before alkaline cleaning Water- or water-solvent-based solutions Emulsions of hydrocarbon solvents such as kerosene and water with emulsifiable surfactant Pigmented drawing compounds Unpigmented oil and grease Cutting fluids and chips Faster but less...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Then, it is placed into the pressure vessel, which is filled with a fluid (normally a soluble oil-water mixture), and is hydrostatically pressed. Pressures typically vary between 21 and 690 MPa (3 and 100 ksi) ( Ref 11 , 12 ). After pressing, the mold is removed from the pressure vessel, and the pressed component...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... and their corresponding debinding systems that will be considered as green technology. Some of the examples are supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of the wax where the gas used can be fully recycled, binder systems based on food grade polymeric materials that can be removed by water, and water-based binder systems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... (usually followed by water quenching) to minimize deleterious second phases. Such second phases can occur during reheating, as in weld heat-affected zones (HAZs), typically as grain-boundary precipitates. Modern wrought alloys, with their very low carbon and silicon contents, are quite stable and can...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... that these two phenomena are related, but addition of 1.5 to 2.0% water to the acid completely inhibited both reactions. Since then, SCC has been demonstrated in hot dry sodium chloride, methanol, hydrochloric acid solutions, seawater, chlorinated solvents, nitrogen tetroxide, mercury, and cadmium. One...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... by this method. ABS, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene; PTFE, polytetrafluoroethylene Fig. 3 Nonvolatile residue results of aqueous extraction physicochemical testing on polymers commonly used in medical devices. Typically, device materials contain very few water-soluble extractables. With reference...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... to facilitate cold working or machining, to improve mechanical or electrical properties, or to promote dimensional stability. This article, using iron-carbon phase diagram, describes the types of annealing processes, namely, subcritical annealing, intercritical annealing, supercritical or full annealing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Water scale, mainly calcium carbonate, CaCO 3 5–15% HCl 50–65 120–150 Stainless steels, Incoloy 800, soft metals 7–20% sulfamic acid 50–65 120–150 Soft metals 5–10% formic acid 50–82 120–180 Chelants: EDTA salts 65–150 150–300 Phosphates, or hydroxyapatite, Ca 10 (OH) 2 (PO 4 ) 6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... power plant classifications Nomenclature Steam conditions Net plant efficiency (higher heating value), % Subcritical 16.5 MPa (2400 psig), 540–565 °C (1000–1050 °F) 35 Supercritical >24.8 MPa (3600 psig), ~565–600 °C (1050–1110 °F) 38 Ultrasupercritical >24.8 MPa (3600...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... failure analysis fatigue fire-side corrosion power plants stress-corrosion cracking tube rupture water-side corrosion FAILURES IN BOILERS and other equipment in stationary and marine power plants that use steam as the working fluid are discussed in this article. The discussion is mainly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., providing high stiffness and force control for adhesion/indentation measurements Fig. 1 The adhesion between two rough surfaces increases suddenly if the relative humidity (RH) rises and the capillary-condensed water spreads across the contact. Source: Ref 13 Fig. 2 Principle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Spectroscopy Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) Examples of Nanomaterials Superhydrophobic Surfaces Water-Sheeting Coatings Antifouling Coatings Antigraffiti Coatings Coatings Containing Sacrificial Metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... containing 10% water vapor, cooled to room temperature every 2 h, then reheated to test temperature. Alloy Weight change (scale not removed), g/m 2 , at: 705 °C (1300 °F) 815 °C (1500 °F) 980 °C (1800 °F) 1090 °C (2000 °F) 409 +0.1 +0.8 +1430 (a) −10,000 (b) 430 +0.4 +1.3 −1660...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of Udimet 500 Superalloy , Pract. Fail. Anal. , Vol 2 ( No. 2 ), ASM International , April 2002 , p 51 38. Ganesan P. , Smith G.D. , and Shoemaker L.E. , “The Effects of Excursions of Oxygen and Water Vapor Contents on Nickel-Containing Alloy Performance in a Waste...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... important to the chemical processing industry follows. Water Tantalum is not attacked by freshwater, mine waters (which are usually acidic), or seawater. Tantalum shows no corrosion in deionized water at 40 °C (100 °F) ( Ref 3 ). For tantalum equipment exposed to boiler waters and condensates...