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superconductors

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Abstract Niobium-titanium alloys (NbTi) became the superconductors of choice in the early 1960s, providing a viable alternative to the A-15 compounds and less ductile alloys of niobium-zirconium. This can be attributed to the relative ease of fabrication, better electrical properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Abstract The discovery of the high-critical-temperature oxide superconductors has accelerated the interest for superconducting applications due to its higher-temperature operation at liquid nitrogen or above and thus reduces the refrigeration and liquid helium requirement. It also permits usage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Abstract This article reviews the phase diagrams, alloy with third element additions, layer growth, critical current density, and matrix materials of A15 superconductors. It describes the production methods of tape conductors (chloride deposition, and surface diffusion) and multifilamentary...
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 7 J-B- ϵ critical surface for multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn superconductors at T c of 4.2 K. Line AB represents the maximum (nearly strain-free) value of the critical current as a function of magnetic field. Corresponding curves on each side of line AB represent the strain window More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 2 Cross sections of two YBCO powder-in-tube processed superconductors. (a) Silver-sheathed tape conductor with YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 core. (b) 0.38 mm (0.015 in.) diam multifilament YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 wire consisting of 29 filaments of 15 μm (600 μin.) diameter. Courtesy of Intermagnetics General More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Superconductors are materials that exhibit a complete disappearance of electrical resistivity on lowering the temperature below the critical temperature. A superconducting material must exhibit perfect diamagnetism, that is, the complete exclusion of an applied magnetic field from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Abstract Superconductivity has been found in a wide range of materials, including pure metals, alloys, compounds, oxides, and organic materials. Providing information on the basic principles, this article discusses the theoretical background, types of superconductors, and critical parameters...
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 3 Comparison of the magnetic behavior of a superconductor to that of a perfect conductor in the presence or absence of an external magnetic field ( B a ) when cooled to below the transition temperature. (a) When cooled without being subjected to the magnetic field (A and B) and (E and F More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 4 Currents flowing within a thin sheath at the surface of a superconductor preventing the external applied magnetic field from entering the bulk. The thickness of the current sheath, and the distance over which the magnetic field decays is called the penetration length (λ). More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 10 Triangular flux line lattice in a lead-indium alloy type II superconductor. Small ferromagnetic particles are attracted to the points of high-field density in the core of the flux lines. The flux line positions are seen using a replica in the transmission electron microscopy (TEM More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 12 Transport current density ( J ) flowing through the superconductor. The flux lines experience a reactive force given by the Lorentz force equation, F L = J × B . In the absence of flux pinning, the Lorentz force will cause the flux lines to flow in a direction perpendicular More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 16 Equal-area condition for cryogenic stability of a superconductor. (A) is the heat transfer from the superconductor to liquid helium, and (B) is the heat generated in the superconductor by a local disturbance. As long as the area under the cooling curve (A) is greater than the area More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 20 Unreacted NbSn high-current density composite superconductor wire produced for high-field magnet application using tin-core MJR process. (a) 100× bright field illumination (B.F.). (b) 1000× differential interference contrast (D.I.C.). The 60 subelements in the 0.6 mm (0.024 in.) diam More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 26 Photomicrographs of an element in a tin-core MJR processed superconductor wire produced using internal tin process. (a) No reaction heat treatment. (b) Three-stage reaction heat treatment at 210 °C (410 °F), 340 °C (645 °F), and 650 °C (1200 °F). Courtesy of Paul E. Danielson, Teledyne More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 4 Cross section of a multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn superconductor wire (20 mm, or 0.78 in. diam). The 18 filaments in the wire each have individual bimetal diffusion barriers composed of concentric rings of niobium around vanadium. The matrix surrounding the filaments is copper. 75× More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
..., superconductivity, superconductors SINCE THE DISCOVERY of high-temperature superconductivity in 1986, pictures of the levitation of a magnet above a superconducting sheet have been widely published in both scientific and popular journals. Owing to the widespread distribution of levitation kits to high schools...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... superconductors and ferroelectric materials. angular distribution ferroelectric materials high-temperature superconductors particulates pulsed-laser deposition pulsed-laser deposition equipment PULSED-LASER DEPOSITION (PLD) is a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique that has gained popularity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Abstract Ternary molybdenum chalcogenides stands for a vast class of materials, whose general formula is MxMO6X8, where, M is a cation and X is a chalcogen (sulfur, selenium, or tellurium). Possible applications of some of these are as high field superconductors (that is, >20 T, or 200 kG...
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 15 Levitation of a high-field permanent magnet above a high- T c superconductor at liquid nitrogen temperatures. The exclusion of magnetic flux by the superconductor due to flux pinning defects creates a magnetic pressure between the magnet and the superconductor that opposes More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 1 Plot of critical current density versus magnetic flux density to compare properties of powder-in-tube process oxide-base superconductors with that of conventional superconductors. MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; SSC, superconducting supercollider More