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superalloys hot forging

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... or polymerbased lubricants and molybdenum disulfide for warm application; graphite suspensions in oil or water for hot forging steels; and glass films for titanium and superalloys hot forgings. The article describes the applications of lubricants in warm extrusion and forging, hot forging of steel, hot forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... alloy forgings. cobalt-base alloys forging forging equipment grain refinement heat treatment heat-resistant alloys hot deformation iron-nickel superalloys melting microstructure nickel-base alloys powder alloys precipitation-strengthened superalloys solid-solution-strengthened...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003985
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., and resistance heating have been used in hot-die forging. Because hot-die forging takes place at temperatures significantly lower than the workpiece, the material does not behave superplastically and forging designs are limited. Additionally some alloys, especially powder metallurgy (P/M) nickel-base superalloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005884
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... the characteristics and processing considerations of each metal. It discusses forging because it is a versatile metalworking process and performed at cold, warm, and hot working temperatures. The article also presents the applications of steels, stainless steels, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, superalloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... are heated to modest temperatures below the tempering temperature of the alloy steel die. The service lives of alloy steel dies used in forging nickel alloys usually range from 3000 to 10,000 pieces. Nickel-base superalloy die material is used in hot-die forging processes for materials where die chilling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... billet material and subsequently subsolvus forged into component shapes to maintain and even refine the grain size. This fine-grain-microstructure process is typical for many superalloys ( Ref 1 ). For instance, one of the most mature superalloys, alloy 718, has continued to improve through such use...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006094
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Works in Cypress, Texas (now Wyman Gordon Co.) which was using hot extrusion to manufacture long products and oil-field goods. Superalloy extrusions were cut into multiple sections, ultrasonically inspected, and isothermally forged into turbine disks similar to those shown in Fig. 1 and 2 . PM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
...-strength powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys, tool steels, and superalloys. Successful application of forging and hot pressing involves careful consideration of powder preparation (compaction, heating, and atmosphere protection) and forming process parameters (preform design, heating, tooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003976
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... material is made when forging heat-resistant alloys and nickel-base superalloys. This is not surprising inasmuch as they have been designed to resist deformation at high temperatures. The primary choices for dies and die inserts for these alloys are the chromium hot work steels. As for the forging of other...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... limits on temperature for the process, therefore, hot-die forging coupled with finite-element modeling for process design have been utilized. As with nickel-base superalloys, special heat treatments have been developed to provide dual (and graded) microstructures in alpha-beta titanium alloys ( Ref...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... (as a percentage of wrought). Behavior corresponds to ferrous-base PM systems formed from coarse powder, but is representative of many powder metallurgy materials. P/S, press and sinter; reP, press, sinter and repress; P/S+F, press, sinter and forge; CIP+S, cold isostatically press and sinter; HIP, hot...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... methods. The article also describes the properties, microstructure, and thermal exposure of superalloys. It further discusses the effects of environmental factors on superalloys, including oxidation and hot corrosion. Protective coatings are also discussed. The article provides information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003989
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., such as an automated rolling mill. Hot Cutoff Saws One final piece of ancillary equipment is a hot cutoff saw. This device is able to quickly cut material at forging temperatures, making it suitable for in-process cutting of billet. It can essentially perform the function of a shear die without the ragged...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... steels and iron-, nickel-, and cobalt-base superalloys via the HIP PM route is the largest commercial application of HIP for metal powder consolidation. The Hot Isostatic Pressing Process Hot Isostatic Pressing Equipment A typical HIP unit consists of a resistance furnace contained within...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
..., and hot-corrosion properties. iron-base alloys mechanical alloying oxide dispersion-strengthened alloys mechanically alloyed commercial alloys nickel-base alloys superalloy powder MECHANICAL ALLOYING (MA) was originally developed for the manufacture of nickel-base superalloys strengthened...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... workability tests and illustrates their application in practical forging situations. Workability tests for open-die forging of cast structures, hot and cold open-die forging of recrystallized structures, fracture-controlled defect formation, establishing effects of process variables and secondary tensile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... close-tolerance forgings conventional forgings friction hammers heating equipment lubrication presses shape complexity trimming CLOSED-DIE FORGING, or impression-die forging, is the shaping of hot metal completely within the walls or cavities of two dies that come together to enclose...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...-die blocker-type forgings. Such forgings are discussed in the article “Dies and Die Materials for Hot Forging” in this Volume. Contour forgings, such as turbine wheels and pressure vessel components with extruded nozzles and bottleneck-shaped forgings see the section “Contour Forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Recrystallization temperature minimum Hot-working temperature minimum (a) Forging temperature Forgeability °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F Niobium and niobium alloys 99.8% Nb 2470 4475 1000 1850 N/A N/A 20–425 70–800 Excellent Nb-1Zr (b) 2400 4350 1200 2190 N/A N/A 20–425 70–800...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of the numbers of twists to failure or the surface fracture strain to failure. Figure 3 shows the relative hot workability of a number of steels and nickel-base superalloys, as indicated by the torsion test. The test identifies the optimal hot working temperature. For details on torsion testing methods, see...