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superalloys

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006094
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Abstract Superalloys are predominantly nickel-base alloys that are strengthened by solid-solution elements including molybdenum, tungsten, cobalt, and by precipitation of a Ni 3 (Al, Ti) type compound designated as gamma prime and/or a metastable Ni 3 Nb precipitate designated as gamma double...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005961
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
..., and protective atmospheres used in heat treatment of iron-base precipitation-hardenable (PH) superalloys. It focuses on various factors to be considered in heat treating of PH stainless steels: cleaning prior to heat treatment, furnace atmospheres, time-temperature cycles, variations in cycles, and scale removal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article summarizes the general features of microstructure evolution during the thermomechanical processing (TMP) of nickel-base superalloys and the challenges posed by the modeling of such phenomena. It describes the fundamentals and implementations of various modeling...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Superalloys are nickel, iron-nickel, and cobalt-base alloys generally used for high-temperature applications. Superalloys are used in aircraft, industrial, marine gas turbines, nuclear reactors, spacecraft structures, petrochemical production, orthopedic and dental prostheses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Abstract This article discusses fracture, fatigue, and creep of nickel-base superalloys with additional emphasis on directionally solidified and single-crystal applications. It analyzes the physical metallurgy of these alloys. The effects of grain boundary and grain size on failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract The process of making assemblies of solid-solution and precipitation hardening groups of alloys and superalloys often requires welding of dissimilar metals, welding of diffusion-bonded materials, and sometimes weld overlay cladding and even thermal spraying that in turn requires...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract This article focuses on the properties of conventional wrought superalloys based on nickel, iron, and cobalt, as well as on the properties of alloys produced from powder. The powder metallurgy (P/M) category includes alloys that were originally developed as casting alloys; new alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract The initial cast superalloy developments in the United States centered on cobalt-base materials. Nickel-base and nickel-iron-base superalloys owe their high-temperature strength potential to their gamma prime content. For polycrystalline superalloy components, high-temperature strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract Directionally solidified (DS) and single-crystal (SX) superalloys and process technology are contributing to significant advances in turbine engine efficiency and durability. These gains are expected to arise from the development of higher creep strength and improved oxidation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... that recirculate in the industrial supply chain. It describes the U.S. market for iron and steel scrap, providing information on scrap use by industry, factors influencing demand, and the purchased scrap supply. Iron and steel recycling is discussed separately from stainless steel and superalloy recycling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006582
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Abstract This article covers the current state of materials development of nickel-base superalloys for additive manufacturing (AM) processes and the associated challenges. The discussion focuses on nickel-base superalloy fusion AM processes, providing information on typically encountered...
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 18 Low-cycle fatigue curves for superalloys at 850 °C (1560 °F). Superalloys used under high-load, high-temperature situations frequently are characterized in the safe-life, finite-life regime. This comparison shows that different alloys can be “better” depending on the specific life More
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Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 14 Low-cycle fatigue curves for superalloys at 850 °C (1560 °F). Superalloys used under high-load, high-temperature situations are frequently characterized in the safe-life, finite-life regime. This comparison at 850 °C (1560 °F) shows that different alloys can be “better” depending More
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Published: 01 June 2016
Fig. 2 Stress-rupture strengths of superalloys. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 June 2016
Fig. 2 General comparison of creep rupture of conventional nickel-base superalloys. (a) 100 h creep-rupture strength of gamma-prime (γ′) nickel alloys compared to solid-solution and carbide-strengthened alloys. (b) 1000 h creep-rupture strength of some selected nickel superalloys More
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Published: 01 December 2009
Fig. 2 Recent discovery of microtwins in nickel-base superalloys after creep deformation has led to further investigation and development of a model that describes this new mechanism. Courtesy of M. Mills, The Ohio State University More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 1 General stress-rupture behavior of superalloys More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 2 Typical operating microstructures of representative superalloys. (a) Cast cobalt-base alloy. 250×. (b) Cast nickel-base alloy. 100×. (c) Wrought (left, 3300×) and cast (right, 5000×) nickel-base alloys. (d) Two wrought iron-nickel-base alloys (left, 17,000×; right, 3300×). Note script More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 12 Wrought nickel-base superalloys showing spheroidal nature of early (low V f γ′) alloys (Waspaloy, left) and cuboidal nature of later (higher V f γ′) alloys (U 700, right). Note secondary (cooling) γ′ between primary cuboidal γ′ particles in U 700. Original magnification, 6800× More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 21 Effects of oxidation on superalloys. (a) Accelerated oxidation of MC carbide (arrow) at surface of MAR-M 200 at 925 °C (1700 °F). (b) Accelerated oxidation of grain boundary in Udimet 700 at 760 °C (1400 °F). 1000× More