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sulfuric acid

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosive media include: hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrobromic acid, nitric acid, organic acids, salts, seawater, and alkalis. The modes of high-temperature corrosion include oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, sulfidation, nitridation, corrosion by halogens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... hafnium in specific media, namely, water, steam, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, alkalis, organics, molten metals, and gases. Forms of corrosion, namely, galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion, and pitting corrosion are included. The article explains the corrosion of hafnium alloys such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Anodizing refers to conversion coating of the surface of aluminum and its alloys to porous aluminum oxide. This article provides the reasons for performing anodizing and discusses the three principal types of anodizing processes, namely, chromic acid process, sulfuric acid process, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... acid, citric acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), formic acid, gluconic acid, and hydroxyacetic acid. Depending on the application, acids may be used alone, but often are formulated with bases and other additives. Organic acids often replace mineral acids, such as hydrochloric and sulfuric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Pickling is the most common of several processes used to remove scale from steel surfaces. This article provides a discussion on pickling solutions, such as sulfuric and hydrochloric acid, and describes the role of inhibitors in acid pickling. It discusses the equipment and processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... complex fluoride plating baths where it is preferred over tantalum ( Ref 12 ). The performance of niobium-tantalum alloys in boiling 70% sulfuric acid is reported in Ref 13 . The tantalum-rich alloys showed a decrease in corrosion rate with increasing exposure time, as was found for pure tantalum and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Constituent or condition Copper sulfate bath Copper fluoborate bath General Printed circuit through-hole Low copper High copper Bath composition, g/L (oz/gal) Copper sulfate, CuSO 4 · 5H 2 O 200–240 (27–32) 60–110 (8–15) … … Sulfuric acid, H 2 SO 4 45–75 (6–10) 180–260 (24–35...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Chemical Condensers, bromide plants … Ethylene dichloride Chlorination Chemical Condensers … Ethylene glycol Reactor, sulfuric acid concentrator Chemical Bayonet heaters, multiple … Ferric chloride Dissolving concentration Chemical Bayonet heaters, single and multiple … Sewage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... thiocyanate/acetone Blue color Cu Dithizone Purple color Fe Potassium ferricyanide Blue precipitate Pb Sulfuric acid White precipitate Mo Potassium thiocyanate/stannous chloride Pink color Ni Dimethylglyoxime Red precipitate In its simplest terms, gravimetry is a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... is transferred to a water bath, and the violent reaction that results on immersion blasts much of the scale from the steel. The surface is essentially free of scale, but quite dull and dirty. To remove the last remnants of oxide, the rack is transferred to a 10 to 15% sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0004050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... additions for oxidation resistance is preferred at this temperature and above for key equipment components such as those used in gas turbines ( Ref 8 ). However, for temperatures between 600 and 750 °C (1110 and 1380 °F), where acid fluxing can occur, chromia-forming coatings are preferred ( Ref 9 ). A...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., making the alloy weakly ferromagnetic at room temperature. Nickel-copper alloys are strong and tough, offering corrosion resistance in various environments, including brine and sulfuric and other acids, and showing immunity to chloride-ion stress corrosion. They are used in chemical processing and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... severe and permanent injury to bone, and even death if burns are not treated properly. Tungsten normally receives no other acid cleaning treatments, but molybdenum is occasionally further acid cleaned in a nitric-sulfuric acid bath. Acid concentrations are normally 750 to 900 g/L (100 to 120 oz/gal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... concentrated or dilute acid solutions that contain oxidizing agents. The acids commonly used are sulfuric, nitric, phosphoric, acetic, and, to a lesser extent, chromic and hydrofluoric. Ammonium bifluoride is used when it is desirable to avoid the hazards that attend the use of hydrofluoric acid. Fluoboric and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... solutions that can be used for other determinations; this may be the deciding factor as to which procedure to use. The following procedure is simple and quite rapid: Reagents Acid mixture: Mix 1 part sulfuric acid, 1 part phosphoric acid, and 1 part water. Ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) 0.1 N...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... saline solutions, alkaline solutions, and organic chemicals. However, copper is susceptible to more rapid attack in oxidizing acids, oxidizing heavy-metal salts, sulfur, ammonia (NH 3 ), and some sulfur and NH 3 compounds. Resistance to acid solution depends mainly on the severity of oxidizing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Electrolytic Phosphoric acid 70 … 70 … … 15–25 … Sodium acid pyrophosphate … 16.5 … 16.5 16.5 … … Sodium bisulfate … 80 … 80 80 … … Sulfuric acid … … … … … … 55–70 Nonionic wetting agent (a) 5 … 5 … … 7–20 … Anionic wetting agent … 3 … 3 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... complex-shaped parts with deep recesses and other irregularities Pickling Done in hot, strong solutions of sulfamic, phosphoric, sulfuric, or hydrochloric acid Scale Complete removal of scale from mill products and fabricated parts Electrolytic pickling removes scale twice as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... cleaning steps should be separated with a thorough rinse. Plating is initiated on an active surface. A wide variety of activators is available, and most are acidic in nature. Hydrochloric, sulfuric, or fluoboric acids are commonly used. Water rinse after activation is critical to avoid contaminating...
Book Chapter

By George B. Rynne
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... hot dipping. Electrodeposited lead has been used for the protection of metals from corrosive liquids such as dilute sulfuric acid; the lining of brine refrigerating tanks, chemical apparatus, and metal gas shells; and barrel plating of nuts and bolts, storage battery parts, and equipment used in the...