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sulfite process

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... examines the corrosion problems in high-yield mechanical pulping, sulfite process, neutral sulfite semichemical pulping, chemical recovery, tall oil plants, wastewater treatment, and recovery boilers. It explains the stages of chlorine-based and nonchlorine bleaching, process water reuse for elemental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Gold electroplating was invented in 1840. During the first 100 years electrodeposited gold was used primarily for its aesthetic appeal as a decorative finish. This article provides a description of the gold plating process and the electrolytes used. It discusses the decorative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the electroless gold plating technique, describing the advantages and limitations, applications, and properties of plated deposits. It also reviews process variables of the technique, including gold concentration, reducing agent, agitation, and contaminants...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005743
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... pulping generally uses either alkaline (Kraft sulfate process) or acidic (sulfite) process. These process conditions cause corrosion and erosion of the inner surface of the digester. Arc sprayed coatings of nickle-base or iron-base alloys are applied as a solution for these problems. Blow Tanks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract The liquid nitriding process has several proprietary modifications and is applied to a wide variety of carbon steels, low-alloy steels, tool steels, stainless steels, and cast irons. This article discusses the applications, subclassifications, operating procedures, and maintenance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... oil fatty acids are the most common sources for oleophilic groups of inhibitor molecules. Tall oil is a by-product of pulping wood chips (usually pine wood) by the kraft process. Although tall oil is removed from the wood as a sodium salt, 10 to 15% inert unsaponifiable material is present. Crude tall...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and process H 2 . Commercial field kits were developed for enumerating SRB and assessing hydrogenase activity, as well as dissimilatory sulfite reductase activity essential to the release of sulfide. These kits are still in use today (2020); yet, the mechanism shown in Fig. 2 is no longer seen as sufficient...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
.... Interior: high humidity; liquor spills, washups, steam and organic vapors; heavy wood dust fallout Exterior: general mill environment (Lime dust deposits are common, depending on location of the lime kiln.) Sulfite Pulping (Acidic Process) The typical environment includes: Temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... nonmetallic materials petroleum production cathodic protection corrosion corrosion control oil and gas protective coatings THE PRODUCTION of oil and gas, its transportation and refining, and its subsequent use as fuel and raw materials for chemicals constitute a complex and demanding process where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... of composition, processing, design, fabrication, and external treatments on the corrosion of stainless steels. Various forms of corrosion, namely, general, galvanic, pitting, crevice, intergranular, stress-corrosion cracking, erosion-corrosion, and oxidation, are reviewed. Corrosion testing for; corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article describes the methods for removing metallic contaminants, tarnish, and scale resulting from hot-working or heat-treating operations on nickel-, cobalt-, and iron-base heat-resistant alloys. It provides a brief description of applicable finishing and coating processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... Abstract This article discusses the fundamentals of electroplating processes, including pre-electroplating and surface-preparation processes. It illustrates the four layers of a plating system, namely, top or finish coat, undercoat, strike or flash, and base material layers. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract The corrosion process that occurs in industrial systems is often difficult to discern until extensive deterioration has occurred. For boilers to function properly, the incoming water must be processed to meet the water quality required for the boiler. This article discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of these PGMs along with the types of anodes used in the process. anodes electrolytes electroplating iridium plating osmium plating palladium plating platinum plating platinum-group metal anodes rhodium plating ruthenium plating THE SIX PLATINUM-GROUP METALS (PGMs), listed in order...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001744
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... transfer in an electrolysis reaction is large compared to the rate of mass transport and there are no complicating side reactions, the extent of the electrolysis reaction as a function of potential can be expressed by a form of the Nernst equation. Such processes are generally known in electrochemistry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... rate alloy components fluid components physical properties CORROSION is a process created by the interaction (reaction) between a material, often a metal or alloy, and its environment that results in degradation of that material. Corrosion is affected by the properties of both the metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract The corrosion processes of metals during burial are affected by environmental pollutants, other archaeological material, geography, microorganisms in the soil, vegetation, land use, soil chemistry, soil physical properties, and the presence or absence of water and air. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... ) is a major industrial chemical. It follows sulfuric and nitric acids in importance and tonnage produced. Phosphoric acid is made from phosphate rock by two methods: the wet process and electric furnace. Phosphoric acid is not a particularly strong acid. It is a stronger acid than acetic acid but weaker than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Hard chromium plating is produced by electrodeposition from a solution containing chromic acid and a catalytic anion in proper proportion. This article presents the major uses of hard chromium plating, and focuses on the selection factors, plating solutions, solution and process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article discusses the corrosion of chromium electrodeposits and the ways for optimizing corrosion resistance. It describes the processing steps and conditions for hard chromium plating. These steps include pretreatment, electroplating, and posttreatment. The article also provides...