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sulfate baths

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Compositions and operating conditions of acid copper plating baths Table 4 Compositions and operating conditions of acid copper plating baths Constituent or condition Copper sulfate bath Copper fluoborate bath General Printed circuit through-hole Low copper High copper Bath...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Copper can be electrodeposited from numerous electrolytes. Cyanide and pyrophosphate alkalines, along with sulfate and fluoborate acid baths, are the primary electrolytes used in copper plating. This article provides information on the chemical composition, plating baths...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Copper can be electrodeposited from numerous electrolytes. Cyanide and pyrophosphate alkalines, along with sulfate and fluoborate acid baths, are the primary electrolytes used in copper plating. This article provides information on the chemical composition, plating baths, and operating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...) Sulfate bath Ferrous sulfate, g/L (oz/gal) 240 (32) pH 2.8–3.5 Temperature, °C (°F) 32–65 (90–150) Current density, max, A/dm 2 (A/ft 2 )  at 32 °C (90 °F) 4.3 (40)  at 65 °C (150 °F) 10 (100) Surface tension, dynes/cm 40 Cathode agitation Desirable Fluoborate bath...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... chromium plating baths Table 2 Compositions and operating conditions for two chromium plating baths Constituent or condition General decorative bath Bright, crack-free bath Chromic acid 250 g/L (33.0 oz/gal) 260–300 g/L (35–40 oz/gal) Ratio of chromic acid to sulfate 100:1 to 125:1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... 110 (a) Converted to Brinell scale from values obtained with a Bierbaum microcharacter using a 9 g (0.3 oz) load Sulfate baths for hard chromium plating Table 2 Sulfate baths for hard chromium plating Type of oath Chromic acid (a) Sulfate (a) Current density Bath...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... 140 100 68 51 41 34 26 20 Note: Values are based on 95.5% cathode efficiency. Nickel electroplating solutions Table 2 Nickel electroplating solutions Electrolyte composition, (a) g/L Watts nickel Nickel sulfamate Typical semibright bath (b) Nickel sulfate, NiSO 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... are more corrosive than sulfate baths. Iron powder and chips produced in chloride baths contain small amounts of chlorides (approximately 0.10%), which is usually more objectionable in specific applications than the small residual sulfates found in products of sulfate baths. Commercial Processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... for steel strip, and key features of each category Coating Cell geometry Anode Bath chemistry Zinc, Zn-Ni, Zn-Fe Vertical Insoluble (Pb alloys, Ir/IrOx coated Ti) Zinc sulfate (plus nickel or ferrous sulfate), sodium and/or magnesium sulfate for conductivity, pH ≈ 2 Soluble (Zn, plus Fe...
Book Chapter

By A. Sato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... incorporating metals such as nickel and cobalt, to improve corrosion for specific applications and possibly eliminate standard chromate treating. A number of zinc baths based on zinc sulfate and zinc fluoborate have been developed, but these have very limited applications. They are used principally for high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Typical iron plating solutions Table 1 Typical iron plating solutions Bath type Composition pH Temperature, °C Current density Component g/L Molarity A/m 2 A/ft 2 Sulfate Fe ++ 48 0.86 2.8–3.5 32–65 215–430 20–40 (a) 240 0.86 Double sulfate Fe ++ 36...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... sulfate. Table 1 compares these processes. The details of the processes are shown in Tables 2 , 3 , 4 , and 5 . Comparison of indium plating baths Table 1 Comparison of indium plating baths Parameter Bath salt Cyanide Fluoborate Sulfamate Sulfate Throwing power Excellent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Characteristic plating baths for making nanometer-scale Ni/Cu multiple-layer alloys Table 1 Characteristic plating baths for making nanometer-scale Ni/Cu multiple-layer alloys Plating bath Typical bath composition Temperature, °C Nickel sulfate 330 g/L NiSO 4 · 6H 2 O, 45 g/L...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... in the solution will cause deposit porosity and roughness. With still baths, suspended matter can be allowed to settle without filtration, but with agitated baths, continuous filtration is advisable. Cathode bar movement is often recommended. The stannous sulfate electrolyte is most popular because of its...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Baths , Hyomen Gijutsu , Vol 43 ( No. 9 ), 1992 , p 835 – 838 32. Cedarleaf C.E. , Solution for Electroless Chromium Alloy Plating , U.S. Patent 4,028,116 , June 1977 33. Gruberger J. et al. , A Sulfate Solution for Deposition of Nickel-Chromium-Phosphorus Alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...). The solution used for final brightening can be used for the required alpha case removal also, with careful watch of titanium content. Sulfuric acid concentration, % Acid addition Bath temperature Corrosion rate °C °F μm/yr mils/yr 30 0.5% copper sulfate 38 100 100 4.0 30 1% copper...
Book Chapter

By George B. Rynne
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... commercially. These salts must be prepared by the plater using litharge (PbO) and the corresponding fluosilicic or sulfamic acids. Sulfamate baths are subject to decomposition, which produces lead sulfate. Applications Process Sequence Fluoborate Baths Fluosilicate Baths Sulfamate Baths...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) Table 1 Hypophosphite-reduced electroless nickel plating solutions Constituent or condition Alkaline Acid Bath 1 Bath 2 Bath 3 Bath 4 Bath 5 Bath 6 Composition Nickel chloride, g/L (oz/gal) 45 (6) 30 (4) 30 (4) … … … Nickel sulfate, g/L (oz/gal) … … … 21 (2.8) 34...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... with hydrochloric acid contain amines or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds as active ingredients. In sulfuric acid pickling, the ferrous sulfate buildup in a worked pickling bath also inhibits the activity of the acid and reduces the effectiveness of the solution for cleaning and brightening the steel. Most...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) … … … 90 (12) Thallium sulfate, g/L (oz/gal) … … … 0.4 (0.05) Operating conditions pH 5–7 5.5 10 14 Temperature, °C (°F) 65 (150) 70 (160) 25 (77) 95 (205) Plating rate, μm/h (mil/h) 7–12 (0.5) 7–12 (0.5) … 15–20 (0.6–0.8) Sodium Borohydride Baths The borohydride...