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subzero-temperature properties

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
.... The product forms of wrought stainless steels are plate, sheet, strip, foil, bar, wire, semifinished products, pipes, tubes, and tubing. The article describes tensile properties, elevated-temperature properties, subzero-temperature properties, physical properties, corrosion properties, and fatigue strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... components ( Ref 5 ). Fig. 7 Effect of tempering on wear resistance. Source: Ref 5 Subzero Treatments When the carbon content of a steel is increased, the martensite start (M s ) and martensite finish (M f ) temperatures are depressed. In many cases, the M f temperature is below room...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... temperature. The cooling treatments are variously referred to as subzero cooling, refrigeration treatments, or deep cooling. In addition to the effects of retained austenite on bending fatigue, as discussed above, any deformation-induced transformation of retained austenite during cyclic loading...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005961
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... to be maintained at temperatures >700 °C (1290 °F). Fully austenitic PH alloys are used in applications requiring properties of an austenitic matrix (such as higher thermal expansion or nonmagnetism) and those requiring high-temperature strength not obtainable with semi-austenitic types. Martensitic PH...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... measured in microinches. Dimensional stability is a bearing condition of great concern. This means heat treating is conducted to prevent excessive diametral growth in the bearing due to retained austenite transforming to martensite at elevated or subzero service temperatures, or shrinkage due...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of accelerated life testing and aging of unreinforced and fiber-reinforced plastic materials for assessing long-term material properties and life expectancy in hostile service environments. It considers various environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity, pressure, weathering, liquid chemicals (i.e...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES of aluminum alloys is useful for the designer for choosing the best alloy and establishing appropriate allowable stress values, and for the aluminum producer to control the fabrication processes. While quality control is usually based on composition and room-temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... stress and strain become astronomical at a discontinuity such as a crack, far exceeding any recognized property levels that may offer some sort of limitation. Two situations are then possible: The crack reaches a critical length so that instability occurs with sudden and cataclysmic fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... properties roughly similar to A4 except with lower carbon content. It is among the lowest in distortion in heat treating. It is deep hardening, with high safety in hardening. Medium resistance to softening at elevated temperature, and medium to high resistance to decarburization. Similar Steels (U.S...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... the practices employed in the cold treatment of steel and presents some of the results of using cryogenic treatment to enhance steel properties. Cold Treatment of Steel Cold treatment of steel consists of exposing the ferrous material to subzero temperatures to either impart or enhance specific...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005985
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
..., and stress relieving. The article lists the compositions of casting alloys and also describes the effect of tempering temperature on the hardness, strength, ductility, and toughness properties of the alloys. alloying annealing casting castings hardening heat treatment martensitic stainless steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005953
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... properties when tempered at temperatures above the secondary hardening peaks at approximately 510 °C (950 °F). These high tempering temperatures provide substantial stress relief and stabilization of properties, so that the steels can be used to advantage at elevated temperatures. This also enables heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005946
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
.... (b) After tempering in temperature range normally recommended for this steel. (c) Toughness decreases with increasing carbon content and depth of hardening. (d) Mainly used by the high-corrosion-resistance (stainless) steels Physical properties—density, thermal expansion, and thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... level. In general, if the weld deposit is less than 13 mm (0.5 in.) in thickness, fairly good tensile properties can be obtained even if the solution treatment is omitted prior to aging. However, the toughness of the weld metal decreases with aging temperature above 540 °C (1000 °F), probably due...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001098
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... industrial use today. These seven have been chosen on the basis of such factors as mechanical and chemical properties, stability of emf, reproducibility, and cost. They will be discussed individually after a review of the principles and practice of measuring temperature by use of thermocouples. Principles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... elements. Copper: Up to 0.8% Cu may be added to ADI to increase hardenability. Copper has no significant effect on tensile properties but increases ductility at austempering temperatures below 350 °C (675 °F). Nickel: Up to 2% Ni may be used to increase the hardenability of ADI. For austempering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... to a condition between that of O and H x 1 temper  H111 Strain hardened to a condition between that of O and H11 temper  H112 Applies to products that may acquire some strain hardening during working at elevated temperature and for which there are mechanical property limits  H116 Applies to aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... additions but also on thermomechanical processing. By varying thermal or mechanical processing, or both, a broad range of properties can be produced in titanium alloys. The elevated-temperature strength and creep resistance of titanium-base materials (along with the pickup of interstitial impurities due...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005887
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
.... In addition, it provides information on the electrical properties of copper and its alloys. The article also lists typical physical and mechanical properties of aluminum alloys at ambient temperature. aluminum alloys cast aluminum alloys copper alloys electrical properties magnesium alloys magnetic...
Book Chapter

By G.R. Speich
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... that has the classical high-carbon martensite substructure ( Fig. 8 ). At slower cooling rates, such as in hot-oil quenching, some retained austenite remains in the form of very small particles ( Fig. 9 ). This austenite is stable upon cooling to room temperature or subzero temperatures but transforms upon...