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subzero cooling

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... oxidation, retained austenite, subzero cooling, residual stresses, and shot peening. The article describes the analysis of bending fatigue behavior of the steels based on S-N curves that represents a stress-based approach to fatigue. It discusses the types of specimen used to evaluate bending fatigue...
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Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 20 S-N curves of vacuum-carburized 8620 and EX 24 (0.89% Mn, 0.24% Mo, 0.55% Cr) steels. The lower curves were obtained from specimens subzero cooled to −196 °C and the upper curves were obtained from specimens not subjected to subzero cooling. Source: Ref 31 More
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Published: 01 October 2014
Fig. 4 Plots of hardness versus tempering temperatures of as-quenched, quenched and subzero cooled to −80 °C (−110 °F), and quenched and subzero cooled to −180 °C (−290 °F) A2 tool steels to show effect of increasing austenitizing temperatures. (a) 950 °C (1740 °F). (b) 1000 °C (1830 °F). (c More
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Published: 01 October 2014
Fig. 18 Effect of tempering temperature on hardness and retained austenite of Type 440C hardened at 1065 °C (1950 °F), oil uenched at 55 °C (130 °F), and subzero cooled at −85 °C (−120 °F) More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005961
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... recommended conditions for solution annealing, austenite conditioning, transformation cooling, and age tempering (precipitation hardening) are given in Table 5 . It includes subzero cooling to obtain maximum toughness and corrosion resistance. Additional specific heat treating conditions and properties...
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 12 Niobium-tin binary phase diagram. (a) Elevated temperatures. (b) Subzero temperatures. M f , temperature at which martensite formation finishes during cooling; M s , temperature at which martensite starts to form on cooling. Sources: Ref 11 , 12 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... austenite can be decreased by repeated tempering or subzero cooling (or both), such repetition should be avoided. Whereas for conventionally produced cold-work tool steels the adjustment of the working hardness is usually done by a combination of different austenitizing and tempering temperatures, PM...
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 17 Effect of subzero-temperature treatment on retained austenite in carburized 0.15% C steel (0.17C-0.05Si-0.64Mn, wt%). (a) Carburized at 940 °C (1725 °F) for 2 h, cooled slowly to room temperature, and single quenched from 940 °C (1725 °F). 1% nital etch. (b) Carburized at 940 °C (1725 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005946
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
.... The austenite composition then sets the hardenability, martensite start (M s ) temperature, retained austenite content, and secondary hardening potential of a tool steel. Figure 2 shows the effect of increasing austenitizing temperature on the as-quenched, quenched and subzero cooled, and tempered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... temper 150 °C (300 °F) 1 h Subzero cool to −75 °C (−100 °F) Double temper at 525 °C (975 °F) 2h Fig. 18 Effect of tempering temperature on hardness and retained austenite of Type 440C hardened at 1065 °C (1950 °F), oil uenched at 55 °C (130 °F), and subzero cooled at −85 °C (−120 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005985
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... resistance to corrosion and stress corrosion. (e) For minimum retained austenite and maximum dimensional stability, a subzero treatment −75 ± 10 °C (−100 ± 20 °F) is recommended; this should incorporate continuous cooling from the austenitizing temperature to the cold transformation temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... steel with high amounts of retained austenite, which converts to martensite on subzero cooling. Stress Relief Residual stresses often contribute to part failure and frequently are the result of temperature changes that produce thermal expansion and phase changes, and consequently, volume changes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005953
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... at approximately 150 °C (300 °F) has little effect. Delayed transformation, particularly in type 440C, may occur as a result of temperature fluctuations in service, thus resulting in embrittlement and unacceptable dimensional changes. Subzero Cooling A portion of the austenite retained in quenching may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
.... Precipitation-hardening steels can be grouped into three types—martensitic, semiaustenitic, and austenitic—based on their martensite start and finish (M s and M f ) temperatures and resultant behavior upon cooling from a suitable solution treatment temperature. The martensitic PH steels, such as 17-4PH...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... temperature. When quenched, the steel case will retain a certain amount of austenite because the M f temperature is never reached. For certain applications, in particular those where extreme dimensional stability is required, refrigeration or subzero treatments are used to cool the component to a final...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005972
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... subjected to multiple tempering or subzero treatment. However, for some special tools, such as gages, where dimensional stability is critical, multiple tempering is desirable. In such instances the workpieces should be cooled to below 65 °C (150 °F) prior to each retempering. Subzero cooling to −75 °C (−100...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in the material transformed to martensite during cooling to the subzero temperature. Fig. 17 Effect of subzero-temperature treatment on retained austenite in carburized 0.15% C steel (0.17C-0.05Si-0.64Mn, wt%). (a) Carburized at 940 °C (1725 °F) for 2 h, cooled slowly to room temperature, and single...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for transformation on cooling to room temperature), subzero cooling (to complete the transformation of austenite), and aging (to fully harden the alloy). Conversely, martensitic precipitation-hardening types often require nothing more than a simple aging treatment. Stress Relieving Stainless steel weldments...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... (subzero) temperatures. However, additional time may be required to reach the test temperature, and the temperatures achievable may depend strongly on the dimensions and degree of insulation of the environmental chamber. It can be difficult to cool to low temperatures in large chambers. Low-temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... cooling and that which is available for subsequent age hardening. It also affects the level of residual stresses, which can influence manufacturing costs, fatigue, and corrosion behavior. After quenching, methods to obtain a balance of properties include cold working before aging, when practical (T8...