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subzero cooling

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...% Cr) steels. The lower curves were obtained from specimens subzero cooled to −196 °C and the upper curves were obtained from specimens not subjected to subzero cooling. Source: Ref 31 Fig. 21 Ranges and patterns of residual stresses as a function of depth for 70 carburized steels. Source...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005961
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
..., transformation cooling, and age tempering (precipitation hardening) are given in Table 5 . It includes subzero cooling to obtain maximum toughness and corrosion resistance. Additional specific heat treating conditions and properties are given in more detail in subsequent sections of this article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005946
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... of a tool steel. Figure 2 shows the effect of increasing austenitizing temperature on the as-quenched, quenched and subzero cooled, and tempered hardness of an A2 tool steel. The highest as-quenched hardness is produced by austenitizing at 950 °C (1740 °F), the recommended austenitizing temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... is ( Ref 20 ): Austenitize 1115–1130 °C (2040–2065 °F) 30 min + 30 min/each additional inch of thickness, salt bath or in vacuum under partial pressure of argon Quench in oil to RT, or in salt to 565 °C (1050 °F), then AC to RT Snap temper 150 °C (300 °F) 1 h Subzero cool to −75 °C (−100 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... hardness. However, hardening from excessively high austenitizing temperatures will increase the retained austenite. Although retained austenite can be decreased by repeated tempering or subzero cooling (or both), such repetition should be avoided. Whereas for conventionally produced cold-work tool...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
.... Precipitation-hardening steels can be grouped into three types—martensitic, semiaustenitic, and austenitic—based on their martensite start and finish (M s and M f ) temperatures and resultant behavior upon cooling from a suitable solution treatment temperature. The martensitic PH steels, such as 17-4PH...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... converts to martensite on subzero cooling. After thorough chilling, additional exposure has no adverse effect. In heat treating, holding time and temperature are critical. In cold treatment, materials of different compositions and of different configurations may be chilled at the same time, even though...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005985
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... cooling in the center of sections up to approximately 300 mm (12 in.) thick, and quenching rate is not a significant issue given the high hardenability of the martensitic stainless steels. The martensitic stainless steels thus can be more sensitive to heat-treating variables than are carbon and low-alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005953
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
.... A portion of the austenite retained in quenching may be transformed by subzero cooling to approximately −75 C (−100 °F) immediately after quenching. To obtain maximum transformation of retained austenite, double tempering may be necessary. Parts should be air cooled to room temperature between the tempering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005972
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... from the O steels are seldom subjected to multiple tempering or subzero treatment. However, for some special tools, such as gages, where dimensional stability is critical, multiple tempering is desirable. In such instances the workpieces should be cooled to below 65 °C (150 °F) prior to each...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... is never reached. For certain applications, in particular those where extreme dimensional stability is required, refrigeration or subzero treatments are used to cool the component to a final quench temperature closer to the M f . To be effective, subzero treatments must be carried out shortly after...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... heat treatments for 17-7PH and PH15-7Mo: solution annealed at 1065 °C (1950 °F) and air cooled; conditioned by heating at 955 °C (1750 °F) for 10 min, air cooling, subzero cooling to −75 °C (−100 °F) for 8 h, and warming in air; then aged at 510 °C (950 °F) for 1 h (RH950) or aged at 565 °C (1050 °F...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for transformation on cooling to room temperature), subzero cooling (to complete the transformation of austenite), and aging (to fully harden the alloy). Conversely, martensitic precipitation-hardening types often require nothing more than a simple aging treatment. Stainless steel weldments generally are heated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... region of the same bar after it had been cooled to −183 °C (−300 °F), by immersion in liquid nitrogen, and retempered. Most, but not all, of the retained austenite in the material transformed to martensite during cooling to the subzero temperature. Fig. 17 Effect of subzero-temperature treatment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... , 9th ed. , American Society for Metals , 1980 , p 746, compiled from several references Aluminum alloys represent a very important class of structural metals for subzero-temperature applications. Aluminum and aluminum alloys...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006348
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... for tribological purposes due to versatile properties such as excellent sliding with graphitic irons and abrasive wear resistance of white irons. Typical wear applications for a variety of cast iron grades are identified in Table 1 . In all of these applications, there is a wide range of compositions, cooling...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... of compositions, cooling rates, and heat treatment variations that control the microstructure and thus the level of wear resistance that can be obtained. A balance also must be obtained between wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and impact resistance (particularly for mineral handling applications). Table...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... can be significantly decreased by subzero-temperature treatments that allow lower-temperature martensitic transformation. This involves cooling the quenched parts to −40 to −100 °C (−40 to −150 °F). An example is shown in Fig. 19 . Subzero treatment of parts that are to be tempered should precede...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... for solution treatment and slow cooled to room temperature  O2 Thermomechanically processed to enhance formability, such as required for superplastic forming  O3 Homogenized H Strain hardened (i.e., for non-age-hardening alloys, wrought products only); this temper applies to products that have...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... and then cooling it in air to a temperature substantially below the transformation range. This article provides information on the normalizing of carbon and alloy steels, and discusses the processes involved and the furnaces used in normalizing of steel forgings, bar and tubular products, and castings. It contains...