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subsurface microstructure

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...Abstract Abstract This article begins with the basic concept of friction and with the general approaches that can be used to control or minimize it. It focuses on the factors influencing rolling friction: surface topography, composition, subsurface microstructure, and lubrication conditions...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... started up, a surface-conditioning process normally occurs. In this process, subtle changes take place in both the surface roughness and the subsurface microstructures to reach the steady-state, running condition. Initially, the surface material may be stressed beyond its elastic limit, causing some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... at the expense of subsurface aluminum. In that case, subsurface microstructural evolution will occur (aluminum depletion) as a function of aluminum-bearing surface oxidation growth. The subsurface evolution will generally follow the same rate equation as that governing oxidation. This is shown in Fig. 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... bit caused too much plastic deformation and friction during holemaking in the AISI 4340 alloy steel. The high heat from the deformation and the friction transformed the subsurface microstructure to untempered martensite with a softer overtempered zone below the untempered martensite layer ( Fig. 4a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... visible after the macropit forms. The defects that cause subsurface-origin macropits are inclusions and/or material microstructure alterations. The defects that most likely produce this type of macropit are located above the depth of maximum alternating Hertzian shear stress. Variables governing the life...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... and/or deterioration of the subsurface microstructure and has negative impact on mechanical properties. Severe mold-metal interaction: Metal or metal oxides fill the voids between sand grains, resulting in penetration defects responsible for major economic losses. Physics and Chemistry of Mold-Metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005888
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... if the production rate, type of metal, and/or billet size changes. For example, if the production rate is reduced, a subsurface temperature surplus typically worsens with a conventionally designed line, with the potential to negatively affect the subsurface microstructure of the billet. It is also very common...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... ). The stresses that initiate failure under contact conditions are shear stresses that peak at some distance below the surface. Therefore cracks that lead to spalling develop at subsurface microstructural discontinuities, such as oxide inclusion particles. Extreme cases of spalling are associated with case...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the effects of load frequency and temperature, material condition, and manufacturing practices on fatigue strength. It provides information on subsurface discontinuities, including gas porosity, inclusions, and internal bursts as well as on corrosion fatigue testing to measure rates of fatigue-crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... minimizing the diffusion-controlled formation of precipitates and coarsening of the subsurface microstructure. Because the temperature of application is low and the process is carried out in accelerators with very good vacuums (≥10 −5 torr, or 1.3 × 10 −3 Pa), clean surfaces are ensured and undesirable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... ). Many researchers have studied the microstructural changes that occur as a result of the buildup of subsurface strain ( Ref 8 , 9 , 10 ). In AISI 52100 steel, a common rolling-contact-bearing material, the accumulation of strain initially is associated with the formation of a dark etching zone below...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
....2011.08.012 32. Slack T. and Sadeghi F. , Explicit Finite Element Modeling of Subsurface Initiated Spalling in Rolling Contacts , Tribol. Int. , Vol 43 ( No. 9 ), 2010 , p 1693 – 1702 10.1016/j.triboint.2010.03.019 33. Voskamp A.P. , “ Microstructural Changes during...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... characteristics can be observed only by an examination of the microstructure. In rolling contact, the surface does not show a catastrophic movement; it remains as the original structure. For example, an unetched, polished sample taken near the origin of a subsurface fatigue crack ( Fig. 6 ) very clearly shows...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the characteristics of fatigue fractures followed by a discussion on the effects of loading and stress distribution, and material condition on the microstructure of the material. In addition, general prevention and characteristics of corrosion fatigue, contact fatigue, and thermal fatigue are also presented...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... This may allow detection of any casting flaws. In some cases the fracture origin can be at a subsurface anomaly, such as gas/shrinkage porosity, a nonmetallic inclusion, or anomalies from weld repair. The precise location of crack initiation may only be discernible with aid of an optical/digital microscope...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
..., selection of carbon content, case and core hardness, microstructure, and toughness and short-cycle fatigue. References References 1. Williams G. , Selection of Carburizing Steels, Case Depth, and Heat Treatment , Metals Handbook 1948 Edition , American Society for Metals , 1948 , p 681...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and subsurface imperfections that will decrease the stress amplitude that can be withstood for a fixed number of stress cycles Is increased significantly by increasing the average tensile stress of the loading cycle There are three stages within a fatigue failure that must be studied closely: the origin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in subsurface initiation in a case-hardened component. Total stress includes applied plus residual stress. The surface is located at the left of each diagram. (a) Subsurface initiation occurs for the shallow case because total stress exceeds local fatigue strength in the shaded (subsurface) area. (b) Subsurface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that repeated plastic deformation can result in localization of permanent microstructural changes. For example, under inelastic cyclic loading, bands of intense slip known as persistent slip bands form in individual crystals of pure fcc metals such as copper. Fine protrusions and intrusions (peaks and troughs...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... treat in the as-cast condition ( Fig. 1 ). The HIP of the casting prior to the T6 treatment yields the microstructure shown in Fig. 1 . Other than the complete elimination of porosity, no significant change in microstructure is observed. Figure 2 shows two valuable aerospace castings being examined...