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subsurface cracking

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... shear stresses at and below the contact surfaces and briefly summarizes bearings and gear characteristics. The article provides an overview of the key types of gear and bearing steels. It analyzes two types of macropitting that result from the subsurface growth of fatigue cracks, namely, subsurface...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the effects of load frequency and temperature, material condition, and manufacturing practices on fatigue strength. It provides information on subsurface discontinuities, including gas porosity, inclusions, and internal bursts as well as on corrosion fatigue testing to measure rates of fatigue-crack...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., the position of the crack is indicated by a detection of the high stresses in the surface right about the subsurface crack. Finally, microwave crack detection is very sensitive to crack opening and to the frequency used. Higher frequencies are needed for the smaller cracks. If the frequency is increased...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., the position of the crack is indicated by a detection of the high stresses in the surface right about the subsurface crack. Finally, microwave crack detection is very sensitive to crack opening and to the frequency used. Higher frequencies are needed for the smaller cracks. If the frequency is increased...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... conditions. Source: Ref 14 Fig. 9 Developing spall. (a) Top view of developing spall at race surface dent. (b) Section through developing spall showing subsurface cracking Source: Ref 4 Fig. 10 Weibull plot of ball-bearing lives distribution. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 11 Ball...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the process of surface and subsurface crack initiation, and increasing numbers of impact cycles tend to refine the microcrack patterns. An acetal resin is a relatively crystalline polymer and, therefore, the conventional delamination theory based on the accumulation of dislocations leading...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... can use GPR to detect subsurface objects, changes in material properties, and voids and cracks ( Ref 16 ). The GPR wave transmission, signal velocity, and reflection are dependent on the electrical properties (dielectric constant and conductivity) of the material(s) being investigated. Material...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... , 1990 , p 411 – 417 28. Thomsen N.B. and Karihaloo B.L. , Subsurface and Surface Cracks under Contact Loading in Transformation-Toughened Ceramics , J. Mech. Phys. Solids , Vol 44 , 1996 , p 207 – 231 10.1016/0022-5096(95)00073-9 29. Tada H. , Paris P.C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... impact. Increasing sliding speed tends to accelerate the process of surface and subsurface crack initiation, and increasing numbers of impact cycles tend to refine the microcrack patterns. Polyoxymethylene is a relatively crystalline polymer; therefore, the conventional delamination theory based...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... sprayed Al 2 O 3 coating Fig. 13 Cohesive delamination in thermally sprayed WC-Co coating (backscattered electron image) Fig. 14 Subsurface crack observations during delamination failure of thermal spray coatings. (a) Subsurface cracks in WC-Co-coated rolling cone at the depths...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Vickers indentation site on a glass surface. The dark lines are radial cracks that are normal to the surface; the bright areas are subsurface lateral cracks that are nearly parallel to the surface. Optical microscope; reflected light (differential interference contrast) Fig. 19 Vickers...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Crack origin subsurface. Progression was parallel to surface and inward away from surface. Not etched. 60× Fig. 24 Gear-tooth section. Rolling-contact fatigue. Crack origin subsurface. Progression was parallel with surface, inward, and finally to the surface to form a large pit or spall...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... digital cameras are available, they are significantly more expensive. Image analysis consists of six basic steps ( Ref 2 ): Another aspect of subsurface damage is that unlike ductile materials, brittle materials can fracture, forming subsurface cracks that can continue to propagate with less...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... as electrical conductivity, magnetic permeability, grain size, heat treatment condition, hardness, and physical dimensions Detect seams, laps, cracks, voids, and inclusions Sort dissimilar metals and detect differences in their composition, microstructure, and other properties Measure the thickness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...-line crack; 8, root crack in weld metal; 9, hat cracks in weld metal Weld metal cracks and base metal cracks that extend to the surface can be detected by liquid penetrant and magnetic particle inspection. Magnetic particle inspection can also detect subsurface cracks, depending on their size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
..., rolling, or impacting over a track. The repeated loading and unloading causes cyclic stresses, inducing surface or subsurface cracks. Other coatings resist wear caused when contacting surfaces undergo oscillatory displacement of small amplitude. This type of wear is difficult to anticipate, because...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., though not necessarily in the same related order: flaking or pitting (fatigue), cracks or fractures, rotational creep, smearing, wear, softening, indentation, fluting, and corrosion ( Ref 2 ). Two or more failure mechanisms can be active simultaneously and can thus be in competition with one another...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... is probably the most common technique in the foundry industry for detecting surface and subsurface discontinuities. It has numerous advantages, including being a robust and very reliable method for detecting fine surface/subsurface cracks; in addition, it is simple to operate, has low cost, is easy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.... This is an extremely sensitive method, and it can locate very fine surface and subsurface cracks as well as many other types of internal flaws. All types of joints can be tested. As the sound wave passes through the weld zone, flaws cause some of the sound energy to be reflected back to the probe. By calibrating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., magnetic particle, radiography, ultrasound, and eddy current, are available to detect flaws in solid materials. In general, the first three methods are for inspecting surface discontinuities such as cracks or cavities. For detection of surface and subsurface flaws, radiography, ultrasound, and eddy current...