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subcritical annealing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract This article describes the metallurgy and process specifics of subcritical annealing, which involves heating below the lower critical temperature such that austenite does not form during subcritical annealing. It provides information on the nominal subcritical annealing temperatures...
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Published: 01 October 2014
Fig. 8 Influence of time at subcritical annealing temperature on hardness More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 8 Influence of time at subcritical annealing temperature on hardness More
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Published: 01 October 2014
Fig. 2 Photomicrograph of subcritically annealed 4% Si-Mo ductile iron casting showing nodular graphite structure. 400× More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 7 Micrograph of a subcritically annealed 4Si-Mo ductile iron showing nodular graphite structure. Original magnification: 400× More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Steels may be annealed to facilitate cold working or machining, to improve mechanical or electrical properties, or to promote dimensional stability. This article, using iron-carbon phase diagram, describes the types of annealing processes, namely, subcritical annealing, intercritical...
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 17 Effect of heat treatment on Charpy V-notch impact properties of ductile iron. Source: Ref 9 Sample (a) Heat treatment A As-cast B Subcritical annealed C Quenched and tempered J Quenched and tempered G Quenched and tempered E Normalized and tempered More
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Published: 01 January 2005
in.) Straightness tolerance (TIR) 0.76 mm (0.03 in.) Flash extension 1.5 mm (0.06 in.) (a) Forging was normalized and subcritical annealed prior to machining. Hardened and tempered after machining. (b) Inspection was conducted in accordance with MIL-I-6868 specification. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005985
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... and adequate facilities for controlled slow cooling are not available. Subcritical annealing is recommended for all applications that do not require maximum softness. Full annealing, isothermal annealing, and especially repeated process annealing promote the formation of coarse carbides that take...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... are performed on austenitic stainless steels, the steel should be cleaned to remove oil, grease, and other carbonaceous residues. Such residues lead to carburization during heat treating, which degrades corrosion resistance. All martensitic and most ferritic stainless steels can be subcritical annealed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005970
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
.... Oxidation resistance is further improved with additions of chromium, which in these grades can approach levels of 2% Cr. An austenitic grade called “Nicrosilal” was also developed, but the Ni-Resist irons have replaced this alloy. Structural and dimensional stability improve with subcritical annealing heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005989
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... annealing of these grades should be followed by water quenching or very rapid cooling. Stress relieving is rarely a concern for any type of ferritic stainless. Unstabilized grades should not be welded, and if they are, full subcritical annealing is required. Stabilized grades have no need...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006332
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
.... Fig. 7 Micrograph of a subcritically annealed 4Si-Mo ductile iron showing nodular graphite structure. Original magnification: 400× Melting Practice For high-silicon ductile irons, standard ductile iron melting practices apply. Cupola melting is acceptable, but these irons are commonly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... are lower than can be achieved in heat treated martensitic castings. These castings must contain sufficient alloying elements to suppress pearlite on cooling. Some compositions (higher silicon) have been developed to assist martensite formation in refrigeration treatments. Subcritical annealing has been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005953
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... transformation stresses without significantly affecting microconstituents or mechanical properties Tempering at intermediate temperatures to modify properties Subcritical annealing (variously called process, mill, or low annealing) in the upper portion of the ferritic range, just below the lower critical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... on cooling. Some compositions (higher silicon) have been developed to assist martensite formation in refrigeration treatments. Subcritical annealing has been employed to reduce austenite content and, at the same time, increase hardness and toughness. Fig. 10 High-chromium iron microstructures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... be austenitized in molten salt as part of the austempering process. Subcritical annealing can be completed without the use of a protective atmosphere. The desired end microstructure of such a process is ferrite, so any decarburization that occurs does not affect the final part performance. Annealing Ductile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005937
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... at 900 to 925 °C (1650 to 1700 °F) for 2 h minimum, longer for heavier sections. Furnace cool at 110 °C/h (200 °F/h) to 700 °C (1300 °F). Hold 2 h at 700 °C (1300 °F). Furnace cool at 55 °C/h (100 °F/h) to 345 °C (650 °F). Air cool. Subcritical Anneal to Convert Pearlite to Ferrite Heat and hold...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and the hardenability to be so high, that maximum hardness is produced by air cooling in the center of sections up to approximately 305 mm (12 in.) thick. Annealing Temperatures and resulting hardnesses for process (subcritical) annealing, full annealing and isothermal annealing are given in Table 4 . Full...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) and holding, following by controlled cooling to near room temperature. Subcritical annealing produces either grade 60-40-18 or grade 65-45-12 for applications requiring high toughness and ductility. Subcritical annealing is usually done by heating to 730 °C (1350 °F) and holding until a ferritic structure...