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striation spacings

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
.... The article discusses the various stages, growth rates, and striation spacings of fatigue crack. The mechanisms of fatigue striation formation are also discussed. The fatigue crack growth in duplex microstructures and cyclic crack growth in polymers are reviewed. The article also describes the mechanisms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... and surfaces. The applications of quantitative fractography for striation spacings, precision matching, and crack path tortuosity are also discussed. quantitative fractography scanning electron microscopes surface area surface roughness transmission electron microscopes THE PRINCIPAL OBJECTIVE...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is particularly useful for quantitative characterization of specific features (for example, dimples, striations, pores, facets, inclusions, etc.) present in the fracture surface ( Ref 35 , 36 ). The features of interest are characterized via estimation of their number density, average size, shape, spacing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... produce microscopic markings that appear very similar to striations but which do not correspond to single load cycles. Consequently, without companion laboratory fatigue crack growth rate data and careful fractographic evaluation, estimation of service history from the spacing between fracture markings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... view of the region outlined by the rectangle in (a) showing the continuity of the fracture path through and around the inclusion. Compare with Fig. 18 . Fig. 18 Local variations in striation spacing in a Ni-0.04C-21Cr-0.6Mn-2.5Ti-0.7Al alloy that was tested under rotating bending conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... evaluation, estimation of service history from the spacing between fracture markings can be problematic ( Ref 29 ). Some polymers, such as polycarbonate and polymethyl methacrylate, can exhibit either true striations or discontinuous growth bands, depending on load levels and loading history. A brief...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... of failures according to mechanism. Source: Ref 19 Fig. 3 Distribution of failures according to cause. Source: Ref 19 Fig. 1 Correlation of fatigue striation spacing with Δ K normalized by Young's modulus ( E ) Fig. 4 Ruptured liquid propane gas cylinder Fig. 6...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... corrosive environment and ductile fracture Crack propagates parallel to flutes Striated or ridged fracture Cyclic loading fatigue striations; Constant spacing, constant stress amplitude; variable spacing, variable stress amplitude or block loading (see Fig. 52 ) Striated surface caused...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... at the microscale, interpretations of larger fracture patterns can be completed even when microscopic evidence is obliterated. One example is fatigue crack propagation analysis where striations (microscopic signatures of crack propagation) may have been damaged due to postfracture exposure. In such a case...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... . Note that the fatigue striations here are more widely spaced than those in Fig. 623 , which indicates that the effective stress increased as the crack penetrated into the specimen. Partly formed dimples are visible above and right of center. 6500× Fig. 625 TEM p-c replica of another area...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.9781627081818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... absence of secondary cracks. See also Fig. 1023 . 300× Fig. 1023 View at higher magnification of the area in the rectangle in Fig. 1022 . Fatigue striations with a spacing of about 0.5 μm were discerned at region A when magnified at 4000×, oriented at a slight angle counterclockwise...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
.... Striations are characteristically mutually parallel and at right angles to the local direction of crack propagation. They vary in striation-to-striation spacing with cyclic stress intensity, they are equal in number to the number of load cycles (under cyclic stress-loading conditions), and they are generally...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... be qualitatively inferred from fractographic examination. Semiquantitative assessments of load levels may be obtained from striation-spacing measurements, or, macroscopically, from the critical crack length before the onset of rapid fracture. One appraisal depends on noting whether or not the part has undergone...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... This lack of resolution occurs because a striation represents only a small surface displacement, which often fades out in the electron image. By shadowing the fracture surface with a gold-palladium film 10 nm (0.4 μin.) thick, it is possible to enhance striation contrast markedly. Striation spacings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Subsequently, fatigue cracks propagate in stage II by a series of opening and closing motions at the tip of the crack that produce, within the grains, striations parallel to the crack front. Stage III occurs during the last stress cycles when the remaining cross section cannot sustain the applied load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... by light microscopy, SEM, or replica transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the fracture mode, to confirm the fracture mechanism (observation of cleavage facets, ductile dimples, fatigue striations, and so on), and to detect features at the fracture origin Examine metallographic cross...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of stress intensity (Δ K ) at the crack tip was 76.9 MPa m (70 ksi in . ). The spacing of striations on a fatigue fracture is commonly used to evaluate the stress conditions causing a fatigue failure. However, the striations that are formed at very low crack-growth rates (less...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... of an image by a 10 V pulse. Source: Ref 35 Fig. 8 Clark and Ceschini's ultrasonic setup. Source: Ref 59 Fig. 9 Schematic measuring the time of flight of a diffracted wave. Source: Ref 53 Fig. 11 Crack growth rate and striation spacing for an annealed iron tested in moist...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... features found are patches of finely spaced parallel marks, called fatigue striations. The fatigue striations are oriented perpendicular to the microscopic direction of crack propagation Fig. 17 . In general, two types of striations have been recognized: ductile striations ( Fig. 17b ) and brittle...