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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... nonferrous metals. The article reviews the various types of forming processes such as blanking, piercing, fine-edge blanking, press bending, press forming, forming by multiple-slide machines, deep drawing, stretch forming, spinning, rubber-pad forming, three-roll forming, contour roll forming, drop hammer...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., roll bending, and stretch bending), spinning, and straightening of bars, tubes, wires, rods and structural shapes. The article also discusses the machines and tools, including dies and mandrels, and lubricants used for these metal forming operations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... stretching a controlled amount (permanent set 1.5–3% for sheet and plate, 1–3% for rolled or cold-finished rod and bar, 1–5% for hand or ring forging and rolled ring). The products receive no further straightening after stretching.  W52 Solution heat treated (unstable temper) and stress relieved by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
...) Cold working subsequent to solution heat treatment and prior to any precipitation heat treatment is necessary to attain the specified properties for this temper. (b) Stress relieved by stretching to produce a specified amount of permanent set subsequent to solution heat treatment and prior to any...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... identify a variation of one of the ten major T tempers described above, additional digits, the first of which cannot be zero, may be added to the designation. Specific sets of additional digits have been assigned to the following wrought products that have been stress relieved by stretching, compressing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...-effective manufacturing method for making certain items. Thermoforming is less limited than metal stamping in stretching, depth-of-draw ratio, and material distribution. Its advantages include a reasonable capital investment, rapid cycles and resulting high productivity, the capability for handling a wide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... individual bond stretches or bond angle bends are often highly coupled to each other. Progress in understanding the nature of molecular vibrations has derived mainly from empirical observation. Although of little practical use in materials characterization, normal-coordinate analysis reveals the nature of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
.... Postquench cold compression and stretching are both effective at reducing residual stresses into the ±30 MPa (4 ksi) range. While these stresses are low relative to the as-quenched condition, they are still of sufficient magnitude to cause problems with distortion when machining very large components. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., University of Wisconsin) Comparisons of fatigue and monotonic (tension, bending, impact) fracture surfaces for various ferritic ductile iron microstructures. Fatigue fractures are characterized by striations (see Fig. 47 , 48 , and 49 ), by relatively little opening up or stretching of matrix material...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... formability of alpha, alpha-beta, and beta alloys. Table 13 Formability of annealed titanium alloys in six forming operations at room temperature or elevated temperature Press brake (minimumbend radius), 20 °C(70 °F) Guerin rubber-pad process (a) Stretch wrap (maximum stretch), 20 °C (70 °F...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... aluminum matrix containing an equilibrium concentration of solute atoms. Indirectly, this behavior is a manifestation of the kinetics of formation of S″ and S′ particles in the aluminum matrix. An additional beneficial effect on strengthening occurs by stretching prior to age hardening. Stretching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... stretching ( Ref 2 ). Thus, interfaces in a state of nonequilibrium are characterized by 12 parameters. When the crystallographic parameters are varied, the interface may display a sharp or shallow energy minimum. One may imagine a nine-dimensional surface with energy valleys and energy minima or maxima...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... with some differences in usage. Notably, strain hardening is not a strengthening mechanism for cast alloys, because the vast majority of castings are produced to near-finished dimensions in shapes that do not lend themselves to stretching or compression by cold working. From a practical standpoint, the...
Book Chapter

By Rebecca Tuszynski
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... manufacturing concerns mechanical properties natural rubber silicone rubber solvent-resistant elastomers styrene-butadiene rubber temperature-resistant elastomers ELASTOMERS are differentiated from other polymers by their ability to return to their original shape after being stretched to several times...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... die at about 190 °C (375 °F) and cooled to about 120 °C (250 °F) by being passed between rolls. Inside a temperature-controlled box, the moving sheet, rewarmed to 130 °C (265 °F), is grasped on either side by tenter hooks, which exert a drawing tension (longitudinal stretching) as well as a widening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.9781627081979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... the same. The main drivers for retardation are the change in the crack tip plastic zone and the resultant change in crack wake plasticity that affects the crack closure. The overload substantially increases the monotonic plastic zone size ( Fig. 4 a). This stretched material must fit within the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000614
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...% Ni, grade 300, maraging steel as in Fig. 806 and 807 , shown here at still higher magnification. At bottom, fatigue has produced numerous secondary cracks. Note the stretched zone at center, at the transition from fatigue to final fast fracture. SEM, 1350× Fig. 809 Fracture surface of a...