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stretch-drawing

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... with a plug bar. In drawing long and small-diameter tubes, the plug bar may stretch and even break. In such cases, it is advantageous to use a floating plug ( Fig. 4 ). This process can be used to draw any length of tubing by coiling the drawn tube at speeds as high as 10 m/s (2000 ft/min). In drawing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... nonferrous metals. The article reviews the various types of forming processes such as blanking, piercing, fine-edge blanking, press bending, press forming, forming by multiple-slide machines, deep drawing, stretch forming, spinning, rubber-pad forming, three-roll forming, contour roll forming, drop hammer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... pulled forward by the frictional force created by the sliding movement of the deforming tube. Therefore, the plug must be held in the correct position with a plug bar. In drawing long and small-diameter tubes, the plug bar may stretch and even break. In such cases, it is advantageous to use a floating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... drawing and extrusion, and so the elongation has little bearing on relative workability. It is unfortunate that such wide use is made of elongation or stretching data in an effort to forecast workability. Compression testing (See the articles “Cold Upset Testing” and “Hot-Compress Testing” in this...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... stretching a controlled amount (permanent set 1.5–3% for sheet and plate, 1–3% for rolled or cold-finished rod and bar, 1–5% for hand or ring forging and rolled ring). The products receive no further straightening after stretching.  W52 Solution heat treated (unstable temper) and stress relieved by...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
....) Material that has been solution heat treated at the mill, but not artificially aged (T3, T4, or W temper), is generally suitable only for mild forming operations such as bending, mild drawing, or moderate stretch forming. Solution heat treated and artificially aged (T6 temper) alloys are seldom used...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...-effective manufacturing method for making certain items. Thermoforming is less limited than metal stamping in stretching, depth-of-draw ratio, and material distribution. Its advantages include a reasonable capital investment, rapid cycles and resulting high productivity, the capability for handling a wide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... required for best results in drawing, stretch forming, or spinning. In press-brake forming, lubrication is seldom needed. Sulfurized or sulfochlorinated oils may be used if the work is carefully cleaned afterward in a degreaser or an alkaline cleaner. Work that has been formed in zinc alloy dies should be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... individual bond stretches or bond angle bends are often highly coupled to each other. Progress in understanding the nature of molecular vibrations has derived mainly from empirical observation. Although of little practical use in materials characterization, normal-coordinate analysis reveals the nature of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.9781627081979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
.... Postquench cold compression and stretching are both effective at reducing residual stresses into the ±30 MPa (4 ksi) range. While these stresses are low relative to the as-quenched condition, they are still of sufficient magnitude to cause problems with distortion when machining very large components. The...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... flow into corners and deep-draw areas more easily. Parison programming and shaping also improve the material distribution. Fig. 9 Material thinning. Parison thins as it stretches into corners, especially in deep draw on left side of mold. The information in this article is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of plug mills or mandrel mills, which may be followed by stretch reducing mills. Hot extrusion is a hot working process for making hollows, suitable for processing into finished tubing of regular and irregular form, by forcing hot, prepierced billets through a suitably shaped orifice formed by an...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003094
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Symbol Hot-rolled sheet Commercial quality A 569, A 635 1008–1012 As-rolled (black) A As-rolled (black) A Pickled—dry P Pickled—dry P Pickled and oiled O Pickled and oiled O Drawing quality A 621 1006–1008 As-rolled (black) A As-rolled (black) A Pickled—dry P...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... die at about 190 °C (375 °F) and cooled to about 120 °C (250 °F) by being passed between rolls. Inside a temperature-controlled box, the moving sheet, rewarmed to 130 °C (265 °F), is grasped on either side by tenter hooks, which exert a drawing tension (longitudinal stretching) as well as a widening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... stretching ( Ref 2 ). Thus, interfaces in a state of nonequilibrium are characterized by 12 parameters. When the crystallographic parameters are varied, the interface may display a sharp or shallow energy minimum. One may imagine a nine-dimensional surface with energy valleys and energy minima or maxima...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... with some differences in usage. Notably, strain hardening is not a strengthening mechanism for cast alloys, because the vast majority of castings are produced to near-finished dimensions in shapes that do not lend themselves to stretching or compression by cold working. From a practical standpoint, the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is the measure of a material with good deep-drawing characteristics. High values of n and m lead to good formability in stretching operations because they promote uniform strain distribution, but they have little effect on drawability. A forming limit diagram has been established for sheet...