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stretch forming

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... nonferrous metals. The article reviews the various types of forming processes such as blanking, piercing, fine-edge blanking, press bending, press forming, forming by multiple-slide machines, deep drawing, stretch forming, spinning, rubber-pad forming, three-roll forming, contour roll forming, drop hammer...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., roll bending, and stretch bending), spinning, and straightening of bars, tubes, wires, rods and structural shapes. The article also discusses the machines and tools, including dies and mandrels, and lubricants used for these metal forming operations...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... formability of alpha, alpha-beta, and beta alloys. Table 13 Formability of annealed titanium alloys in six forming operations at room temperature or elevated temperature Press brake (minimumbend radius), 20 °C(70 °F) Guerin rubber-pad process (a) Stretch wrap (maximum stretch), 20 °C (70 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... required for best results in drawing, stretch forming, or spinning. In press-brake forming, lubrication is seldom needed. Sulfurized or sulfochlorinated oils may be used if the work is carefully cleaned afterward in a degreaser or an alkaline cleaner. Work that has been formed in zinc alloy dies should be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... evaluating the microstructure of a flow-formed Ti-6Al-4V part, the longitudinal cross section is composed of primary globular alpha grains that had become elongated or stretched parallel to the axis, surrounded by fine transformed beta grains also elongated in the direction of metal flow. In contrast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... reduction combination cannot maintain compressive axial stresses in the drawn component, the center portion will be stretched, and the tensile stress may increase to a level where bursting occurs ( Fig. 48 ). In the first forming operation for a component, the stresses in the component may be high, but the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... deformation is partitioned between the grains is a characteristic of the polycrystal model used, and this section surveys some of the models. At the level of the polycrystal, the macroscopic velocity gradient can be decomposed into a stretch rate and a spin rate component, as is done for the single crystal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... tests, such as the tension test, ring compression test, plane-strain compression test, bend test, indentation test, and forgeability test. It concludes with information on the role of the finite-element modeling software used in workability analysis. bend test bulk forming processes cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... higher CO 2 emissions as compared to conventional manufacturing methods such as forming and machining. Thus, the demand for sustainable and green manufacturing also compels manufacturers to think more on the improvement of the efficiency of heat treatment. In the last three decades, the computer...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... when stretched in the longitudinal direction. Fig. 5 Directions for Poisson's ratio defined The coefficient of thermal expansion, α, is defined in Fig. 6 as the slope of the secant line from a reference temperature (20 °C, or 70 °F, no expansion) to the expansion or contraction at the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... against the plastic sheet, stretching it and forcing it into the cavity. Vacuum force pulls the sheet from the plug surface and onto the mold surface. Plug assist forming, with a well-designed mold, yields precise control of material distribution. Fig. 4 Plug-assist thermoforming. (a) Heat-softened...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the material being worked should be relatively free of oxide and scale. Spalling or chipping may be the direct result of endwise extrusion or stretching of the blank during rolling, over-rolling, improper blank design, or inferior design or quality of tools. When spalling occurs, relatively large...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... In dies, common causes of galling are stretching sheet metal beyond practical limits, tool fitting with poor alignment or insufficient die clearance for the given sheet thickness, wrinkles, the use of galling-susceptible tool steel, and rough finish on the surface of tools. Correct lubrication of the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... only for mild forming operations such as bending, mild drawing, or moderate stretch forming if these operations cannot be performed immediately after quenching. Solution heat-treated and artificially aged (T6 temper) alloys are in general unsuitable for forming operations. Aluminum alloys an be...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Copper and copper alloys are widely used in many environments and applications because of their excellent corrosion resistance, which is coupled with combinations of other desirable properties. This article lists the identifying characteristics of the forms of corrosion that commonly...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Increases the melting rate by bringing hot melt under the batch blanket and removing cooler partially melted material Aids homogenization by shearing and stretching the melt The control of the flow patterns is the primary aim of the design and operation of a glass furnace. These flow patterns are...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Wear of metals occurs by plastic displacement of surface and near-surface material, and by detachment of particles that form wear debris. This article presents a table that contains the classification of wear. It describes the testing and evaluation of wear and talks about the abrasive...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., or a combination of stretching and compressing: Product form Permanent set, % Plate 1 1 2 –3 Rolled or cold-finished rod and bar 1–3 Extruded rod, bar, profiles (shapes), and tube 1–3 Drawn tube 1 2 –3 Die or ring forgings and rolled rings 1–5...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... die at about 190 °C (375 °F) and cooled to about 120 °C (250 °F) by being passed between rolls. Inside a temperature-controlled box, the moving sheet, rewarmed to 130 °C (265 °F), is grasped on either side by tenter hooks, which exert a drawing tension (longitudinal stretching) as well as a widening...