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stretch bending

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., roll bending, and stretch bending), spinning, and straightening of bars, tubes, wires, rods and structural shapes. The article also discusses the machines and tools, including dies and mandrels, and lubricants used for these metal forming operations...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... nonferrous metals. The article reviews the various types of forming processes such as blanking, piercing, fine-edge blanking, press bending, press forming, forming by multiple-slide machines, deep drawing, stretch forming, spinning, rubber-pad forming, three-roll forming, contour roll forming, drop hammer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000624
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... exhibits rather flat, elongated dimples. The region at left center in this view appears to have been stretched. 6500× Fig. 1201 Surface of a slow-bending fracture produced at −160 °C (−256 °F) in Fe-3.9Ni alloy deoxidized with aluminum and titanium, which was forged at 1260 °C (2300 °F), hot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., special devices have been developed that keep the films stretched during ablation ( Ref 1 ). Equipment used for uniaxial tensile testing of thin films is generally based on the simple principle of deforming a freestanding film by a known amount through the application of a known force to the ends of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... compression, bending, torsion). Finally, the factors influencing the appearance of a fracture surface and various imperfections or stress raisers are described, followed by a root-cause failure analysis case history to illustrate some of these fractography concepts. brittle fracture crack nucleation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... . With this design, the ribs are sufficiently stretched to ensure fracture in even most ductile materials. The fracture strain is based on reduction in area where the rib is cut out, so that the fracture area can be photographed or traced on an optical comparator. Fig. 13 Secondary-tension test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Surface of a fracture in a notched specimen of AISI 4340 steel that was broken in tension overload, showing scattered dimples. It is not certain whether the remainder of the surface in this area consists of quasi-cleavage facets or of large dimples that have undergone appreciable stretching. TEM p-c...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... tests, such as the tension test, ring compression test, plane-strain compression test, bend test, indentation test, and forgeability test. It concludes with information on the role of the finite-element modeling software used in workability analysis. bend test bulk forming processes cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... stretching a controlled amount (permanent set 1.5–3% for sheet and plate, 1–3% for rolled or cold-finished rod and bar, 1–5% for hand or ring forging and rolled ring). The products receive no further straightening after stretching.  W52 Solution heat treated (unstable temper) and stress relieved by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., University of Wisconsin) Comparisons of fatigue and monotonic (tension, bending, impact) fracture surfaces for various ferritic ductile iron microstructures. Fatigue fractures are characterized by striations (see Fig. 47 , 48 , and 49 ), by relatively little opening up or stretching of matrix material...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... formed cold to a limited extent. Alloy Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V sheet can be cold formed to shallow shapes by standard methods, but the bends must be of larger radii than in hot forming and must have shallower stretch flanges. Cold forming of other alloys generally results in excessive springback, requires stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.9781627081979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... individual bond stretches or bond angle bends are often highly coupled to each other. Progress in understanding the nature of molecular vibrations has derived mainly from empirical observation. Although of little practical use in materials characterization, normal-coordinate analysis reveals the nature of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
.... Postquench cold compression and stretching are both effective at reducing residual stresses into the ±30 MPa (4 ksi) range. While these stresses are low relative to the as-quenched condition, they are still of sufficient magnitude to cause problems with distortion when machining very large components. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... stated previously, ductile fractures generally occur along the plane of maximum shear stress (orthogonal to the wire axis in torsion). In this case, axial stretching of the coil resulted in torsional stresses sufficient to fracture the coil wire. No evidence of any defects that could have contributed to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and its components are functions of their position on the cut surface. The possibility that the stresses σ and τ are functions of position on the surface must also be permitted (as in the stress field around a stress concentrator or a stress state in bending or torsion). In addition, if the surface is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000614
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...% Ni, grade 300, maraging steel as in Fig. 806 and 807 , shown here at still higher magnification. At bottom, fatigue has produced numerous secondary cracks. Note the stretched zone at center, at the transition from fatigue to final fast fracture. SEM, 1350× Fig. 809 Fracture surface of a...