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stress-strain relationship

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article provides the definitions of stress and strain, and describes the relationship between stress and strain by stress-strain curves and true-stress/true-strain curves. The emphasis is on understanding the factors that determine the extent of deformation a metal can withstand...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... behavior from the beginning. Here, the normal stress, σ, and the strain, ε, are converted to shear stress and shear strain, respectively, with the help of the Taylor factor τ = σ/3 and γ = 3ε. See the section “Basic Relationships for Work Hardening in Stage III” in this article. The discovery of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... between normal and shear stress components at yielding. From this, relationships between stress and strain components are derived: (Eq 1) ε 1 = λ [ σ 1 − 1 2 σ 2 − 1 2 σ 3 ] ε 2 = λ [ σ 2 − 1 2 σ 3 − 1 2 σ 1 ] ε 3 = λ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... external field. The relationship between uniaxial stress and angular-dependent strain is also discussed. The influence of stress on domain walls, and therefore, the generation of Barkhausen noise are described. The article also describes the directional and angular MBN measurements and provides information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... capable of cold working. Alloys of this type can be given greater reductions before annealing is necessary than equivalent-strength α alloys. Another and more common method of measuring the strain-hardening characteristics of an alloy is by analyzing the tensile stress-strain relationship. Figure 12...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... propagating crack is below a certain value and a triaxial or plane strain stress state exists at the crack tip, linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) can be applied to describe the relationship between crack length ( a ) and the applied stress (σ) by stress intensity factor K : K = σ a ⋅ F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... stress and strain imposed by the process ( Ref 25 ). For example, Fig. 23 shows that there is a linear relationship between the true strain to fracture in the tension test (a measure of the material ductility) and the percentage reduction by cold rolling to produce edge cracking. Note that sheet with...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... These steels are the rephosphorized steels (type 1211 to 1215 series). Mechanical property data for these steels can be found in Table 1 . Fig. 10 Influence of solid-solution elements on the changes in yield stress of low-carbon ferritic steels. Source: Ref 5 In Fig. 10 , the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... geometry and friction conditions; strain measurements; crack detection; and material inhomogeneities, which are to be considered for performing cold upset testing. It describes test characteristics in terms of deformation, free-surface strains, and stress states for performing cylindrical compression tests...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... apply to the situation away from the steady state, then this relationship together with Eq 41 predicts that the work-hardening rate will exhibit a strong dependence on both stress and strain rate that is much more pronounced than the experimental evidence would indicate. The physical basis of the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-relaxation testing. Shear testing, torsion testing, and formability testing are also discussed. The discussion of tension testing includes information about stress-strain curves and the properties described by them. compression testing fatigue testing formability testing fracture testing hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... that significantly affect the fracture propagation rate and fracture appearance. The external environment includes hydrogen, corrosive media, low-melting metals, state of stress, strain rate, and temperature. The mechanism of stress-corrosion cracking in metals such as steels, aluminum, brass, and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... material. This compressive stress accommodates the elastic strain, with the remaining applied strain accommodated through plasticity in the heated layer. For cases in which the yield strength of the material is exceeded, the strain distributions follow the relationship: (Eq 5) ϵ el = ( σ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... temperature and strain rate. At the current state of development, the ability to model a forging process by calculating stress, strain rate, and temperature throughout a deforming workpiece with a computer-based finite-element technique exceeds the ability to predict the workability of the material. A large...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article discusses different heat treating techniques, including quenching, homogenizing, annealing, stress relieving, stress equalizing, quench hardening, strain hardening, tempering, solution heat treating, and precipitation heat treating (age hardening) for different grades of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article summarizes a physical model of an interface structure and shows how the model helps in optimizing atomistic modeling studies. It presents the orientation relationship of the interface structure to define the mutual crystallographic position of adjacent crystals. The...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... and temperature dependence of the relationship between stress and strain may be superposable and therefore essentially equivalent ( Ref 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ). Time- and temperature-dependent viscoelastic properties can be examined experimentally by creep and stress relaxation tests and by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003972
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... material may depend on location within the part and on the direction of applied stress. These differences are directly related to the microstructure of the material in its final processed form and have a huge impact on the relationships between product design and process selection and specifications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... large shear component (~10%) plus a ~2% volume change in the eigenstrain, or stress-free transformation strain (SFTS) ( Ref 15 ). The elastic energy and interfacial energy anisotropy plus possible growth anisotropy associated with such Burgers path and BORs lead to the formation of Widmanstätten α...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... elastic strains. Residual stresses may arise from contraction due to mold restraint during solidification, from nonuniform cooling after heat treatment, or from quenching. Machining operations also can result in residual stress and require intermediate stress relieving prior to final machining. Weld...