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stress-relaxation techniques

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... and classifies them as follows: Stress-relaxation techniques X-ray diffraction techniques Techniques using stress-sensitive properties Cracking techniques Classification of techniques for measuring residual stress Table 1 Classification of techniques for measuring residual stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... available measurement techniques and classifies them as follows: Stress-relaxation techniques X-ray diffraction techniques Techniques using stress-sensitive properties Cracking techniques Classification of techniques for measuring residual stress Table 1 Classification of techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... chemical methods neutron diffraction residual stress strain stress field stress-relaxation techniques ultrasonic propagation analysis X-ray diffraction MANY METHODS and techniques have been proposed for the measurement of residual stresses. A classification of techniques is provided in Welding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Abstract This article discusses stress relaxation testing on metallic materials, as covered by ASTM E 328. It reviews the two types of stress relaxation tests performed in tension, long-term and accelerated testing. The article illustrates load characteristics and data representation for stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005506
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
..., and so on. The remainder of this article discusses approximate and advanced solution techniques that can be employed in practice for simulation of residual stress relief. Stress Relaxation and Creep Deformation Stress relaxation and creep deformation are essentially the same material phenomenon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... for stress relieving. For example, 90 s in a salt bath at 345 °C (650 °F) relieved 80% of the residual stress of ground steel parts ( Ref 19 ). Even if no stress relaxation technique is used, fatigue-related relaxation sometimes occurs due to microplastic deformation. The rate of relaxation is greatest when...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account of x-ray diffraction (XRD) residual-stress techniques. It begins by describing the principles of XRD stress measurement, followed by a discussion on the most common methods of XRD residual-stress measurement. Some of the procedures required...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Abstract This article reviews the basic equipment and methods for creep and creep rupture testing. It begins with a discussion on the creep properties, including stress and temperature dependence, as well as of the extrapolation techniques that permit estimation of the long-term creep...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... in this article. Simple tools and techniques for predicting part performance (stiffness, strength/impact, creep/stress relaxation and fatigue) integrated with manufacturing concerns (flow length and cycle time) are demonstrated for design and material selection. Engineering plastics are now used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... Differential scanning calorimetry has been used to study thermodynamic processes (glass transition, heat capacity) and kinetic events such as cure and enthalpic relaxations associated with physical aging or stress ( Ref 1 ). Differential scanning calorimetry is commonly used to measure the T g...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... residual stresses in the material. Using XRD, the residual stresses should be corrected for stress relaxation using the Moore-Evans ( Ref 32 ) method, where the material removed is over the whole surface. The stress correction with this technique requires measurements in one direction for flat surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is over the whole surface. The stress correction with this technique requires measurements in one direction for flat surfaces and two directions for cylindrical surfaces (hoop and axial). For more complicated specimen geometry, finite-element techniques can be used to correct for stress relaxation due...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... model, and describes the most common methods of x-ray diffraction residual stress measurement, namely, single-angle and two angle techniques. It elaborates the major steps involved in x-ray diffraction residual stress measurement, explaining the possible sources of error in stress measurement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... for superalloys, stress decreases linearly with log(time). In a creep test, the strain is measured under a given applied stress that is held fixed over time. The stress-relaxation technique requires fewer tests than the traditional creep technique to cover the entire stress/temperature/time behavior...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... in age formability with aging may be observed in Fig. 2 . Here, the stress relaxation curves for alloy 7055 given four different initial treatments prior to a stress relaxation test are presented. The stress drop shown in Fig. 2 is the difference between the initial applied stress and the stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... photolithographic techniques. Problems are caused also by internal stresses that are created in the films during the deposition process. When the films are separated from the substrates, the stresses often cause films to wrinkle or to curl severely, rendering them useless for testing. To alleviate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... stress stress relaxation thermal gradient THE PRESENCE OF MACROSCOPIC RESIDUAL STRESSES in heat treatable aluminum alloys can give rise to machining distortion, dimensional instability, and increased susceptibility to in-service fatigue and stress-corrosion cracking. Residual stresses arise during...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... properties as well ( Ref 11 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 ). This includes mechanical effects such as creep deformation and stress relaxation, as briefly summarized in this article. The effects of viscoelasticity on mechanical strength (such as tensile strength, fatigue strength...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... essentially equivalent ( Ref 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ). Time- and temperature-dependent viscoelastic properties can be examined experimentally by creep and stress relaxation tests and by dynamic mechanical testing methods. Creep tests measure the time-dependent deformation of a material while...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... temperatures. The article describes the stages of the creep curve, discusses processes involved in the extrapolation of creep data, and summarizes notable creep constitutive models and continuum damage mechanics models. It demonstrates the effects of stress relaxation and redistribution on the remaining life...