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stress-relaxation characteristics

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Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 3 Tensile-stress-relaxation characteristics of copper alloy C11000. Data are for tinned 30 AWG (0.25 mm diam) annealed ETP copper wire; initial elastic stress, 89 MPa (13 ksi). More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... stress-relaxation characteristics of copper alloys. copper cable copper sheet copper strip copper tubular products copper wire manufacturing processes stress-relaxation characteristics wrought copper wrought copper alloys COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS are produced in various mill-product...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... metals, stress relaxation in a given time period is inversely proportional to absolute temperature ( Ref 1 ). Fig. 4 Tensile-stress-relaxation characteristics of C11000. Data are for tinned 30 AWG (0.25 mm diam) annealed ETP copper wire; initial elastic stress, 89 MPa (13 ksi). The stress...
Image
Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 1 Characteristic behavior during loading period in a stress relaxation test. (a) Constant strain rate. (b) Constant load rate. Source: Ref 11 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... characteristics of copper. The article also discusses the tensile-stress-relaxation behavior of selected types of copper wires. annealing copper copper wire recrystallization strengthening stress relaxation COMMERCIAL COPPERS contain at least 99.3% Cu with minor alloying elements and/or residual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses stress relaxation testing on metallic materials, as covered by ASTM E 328. It reviews the two types of stress relaxation tests performed in tension, long-term and accelerated testing. The article illustrates load characteristics and data representation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract The principal types of elevated-temperature mechanical failure are creep and stress rupture, stress relaxation, low- and high-cycle fatigue, thermal fatigue, tension overload, and combinations of these, as modified by environment. This article briefly reviews the applied...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... and rupture strengths of materials. The article describes the different types of equipment for determination of creep characteristics, including test stands, furnaces, and extensometers. It also discusses the different testing methods for creep rupture: constant-load testing and constant-stress testing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Fig. 2 Typical stress-strain curves for polycrystalline aluminum and semicrystalline polyethylene. Both materials neck. In polyethylene, chain alignment results in stiffening just before failure. The postyield deformation described above involves shear deformation. One characteristic of shear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... or induction-hardened components are often found to initiate below the surface. Fig. 27 Typical residual stress patterns obtained by shot peening (a) and induction hardening (b) Cycle-Dependent Stress Relaxation It is common to assess residual stress effects on fatigue by treating them as mean...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... with the aluminum/titanium-hardened alloys, which exhibit a very rapid age-hardening response. Because of the relaxation resistance of these alloys, the yield-strength-level stresses can result in short-time stress rupture failures. Preweld heat treatments, which put the material in a condition that promotes stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005506
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
...Abstract Abstract This article summarizes many approaches that are used to simulate relaxation of bulk residual stresses in components. It presents analytical examples to highlight the complexity of residual stress and strain distributions observed in simple geometries, with ideal material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... transitions as a function of temperature (or time) under controlled atmospheric conditions. Differential scanning calorimetry has been used to study thermodynamic processes (glass transition, heat capacity) and kinetic events such as cure and enthalpic relaxations associated with physical aging or stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and viscoelastic behavior Polymer structure and morphology Primary and secondary relaxation behavior Crystallization processes Influence of fillers in polymers In DMA, the sample is subjected to a periodic stress in one of several different modes of deformation (bending, tension, shear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., especially at high temperature, and residual stresses of the samples had more effect on fatigue resistance than surface hardening does. Stress Relaxation Stress relaxation can be a finishing operation per se. Reference 18 describes a variety of thermal and/or mechanical operations can be applied...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... required for XRD residual-stress measurement are then presented. The article provides information on measurement of subsurface stress gradients and stress relaxation caused by layer removal. The article concludes with a section on examples of applications of XRD residual-stress measurement that are typical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (0.08 in.) hole. X-ray diffraction residual-stress measurements at locations where access is a problem normally require sectioning of the component to access the location of interest and, in general, require the evaluation of applied stresses caused by the relaxation due to sectioning. The most common...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... as a neutral line, hence satisfying two more objectives. Highs, lows, flattening, overcrowning, twist, and size variation are all aspects of springback resulting from the elastic straining (i.e., shrinkage) that results from the relaxation of the forming stresses. The designer should review the forming...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of only one using XRD residual-stress analysis can be risky, because it may inadequately represent the statistical distribution of residual stresses in the component population. Components that have already failed may be of limited use, because residual stresses may have changed or relaxed considerably...