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stress raisers

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
..., but the range of shear stress versus depth is also at or very near the surface for tangential forces from rolling/sliding contact. Abstract The mechanism of contact fatigue can be understood in terms of several sources of stress concentration, or stress raisers, within the macroscopic Hertzian stress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article discusses the effect of using unsuitable alloys, metallurgical discontinuities, fabrication practices, and stress raisers on the failure of a pressure vessel. It provides information on pressure vessels made of composite materials and their welding practices. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... geometric factors and materials aspects that influence the stress-strain behavior and fracture of ductile metals. It highlights fractures arising from manufacturing imperfections and stress raisers. The article presents a root cause failure analysis case history to illustrate some of the fractography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., bending, torsion). Finally, the factors influencing the appearance of a fracture surface and various imperfections or stress raisers are described, followed by a root-cause failure analysis case history to illustrate some of these fractography concepts. brittle fracture crack nucleation crack...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and corrective action. The failure analyst should have copies of the detail and assembly drawings as well as the material and testing specifications that involve the shaft. Potential stress raisers or points of stress concentration, such as splines, keyways, cross holes, and changes in shaft diameter...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as the crack is small. After a crack has nucleated and propagated to a larger size, it becomes a macroscopic stress raiser and can be more influential than any stress raiser already in the part. At this point, the crack tip will take over control of the fracture direction. Subsequently, the orientation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the characteristics of fatigue fractures followed by a discussion on the effects of loading and stress distribution, and material condition on the microstructure of the material. In addition, general prevention and characteristics of corrosion fatigue, contact fatigue, and thermal fatigue are also presented...
Book Chapter

By Mark Hayes
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... or impact loading effects. The possibility of stress raisers, wear due to contact with adjacent components, or residual tensile stresses from manufacture also needs to be considered. Stress calculations are best accomplished by use of commercial computer-assisted design programs, or from first principles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in the machined part that damage the workpiece by increasing the surface roughness and becoming stress raisers. The presence of carbides in cast iron can increase chipping of the cutting tool and have a deleterious effect on surface roughness ( Ref 7 ). Using polished or coated cutting tools and cutting fluids...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... specimens. (a) Torsional specimen. (b) Rotating cantilever beam specimen. (c) Rotating beam specimen. (d) Plate specimen for cantilever reverse bending. (e) Axial loading specimen. R , radius; D , diameter Fig. 1 Venn diagram illustrating the interrelationship among stress corrosion, corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002376
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
..., large scatter in fatigue life was experienced. This persists and indicates that close correlation of the incipient cracks and running time should not be expected ( Ref 1 ). Internal stress raisers, such as nonmetallic inclusions or carbides, are the beginning sites for incipient cracking. Because...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to cracking. One reason for this is the greater alloy segregation in dirty steels, leading to alloy-rich and alloy-lean regions. Another reason is that these steels typically have a greater number of surface seams, which act as stress raisers. Also, dirty steels and steels with higher sulfur levels are often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The starting point of the weld, which may act as a more pronounced stress raiser, may also be a factor. In one case, for example, failures caused by bending were occurring in the circumferential welds of two tubular members. The failures were prevented when the weld was started on the neutral axis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... points of initiation of cracks. Small fillets, sharp corners, grooves, and threads act as stress raisers from which fatigue cracks initiate and fractures propagate. Correct design of a threaded shank on a hook, for example, and the stress-relief groove at the base of a threaded shank are very important...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... Alloy selection By merit rating based on values of critical stress intensity ( K c ) and/or plane-strain fracture toughness ( K Ic ) By determination of residual load-carrying capacity with due regard for initial size of the discontinuity, the rate of fatigue crack propagation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
..., shearing can produce minute edge cracks, which are effective stress raisers, and reduce tensile strength and elongation; this influence is greater on stress-rupture and fatigue strengths. Surface residual compressive stresses produced by shot peening and surface rolling may increase fatigue strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.9781627082105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... and associated stresses during shipping or from wind-induced vortex shedding. Thus, it is often helpful to minimize stress raisers in parts through judicious detailing (such as providing reinforcing fillet welds at tee joints) and to proportion or dampen components to avoid resonance from external sources...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Both types of fracture can, and often do, initiate at corrosion pits or other stress raisers on the surface of the part. However, if the environment is sufficiently corrosive and if tensile stresses are present, stress-corrosion cracking can be initiated even on smooth surfaces, whereas corrosion...