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stray-current corrosion

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract Stray-current corrosion is an accelerated form of corrosion caused by externally induced electric current. It can occur in unprotected pipelines and submerged metal structures located near electric power sources or anywhere voltage differences exist. This article describes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... operations. Source: Ref 16 , 22 Fig. 17 Ground mat (gradient grid) at underground valve Abstract Abstract Stray current can be defined as a current in structures that are underground or immersed in an electrolyte that most often accelerate corrosion on a structure where a positive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract This article presents the fundamentals of stray-current corrosion caused by electric rail transit systems. It describes the various corrosion-control design elements for the electric rail system. These design elements include substation spacing and grounding, track and track...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003130
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., galvanic corrosion, stray-current corrosion, deposition corrosion, crevice corrosion, filiform corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue, and hydrogen embrittlement. The article also presents a short note on aluminum clad products and corrosion at joints. Selected References Selected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... magnification: 100× Fig. 1 Example of external corrosion of an underground pipeline. Lower quadrant of pipeline shown after coating removal and abrasive cleaning Fig. 3 Iron-related bacteria creating a differential oxygen and pH cell on a metal surface Fig. 4 Stray current...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...–6.5 Moderate 6.5–7.5 Neutral >7.5 (alkaline) None Source: Ref 6 Fig. 3 Stray-current corrosion caused by electrically common tanks picking up current from pipeline protection anode bed. Corrosion is most severe where current density leaving tank is highest (arrows). Source...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Aqueous Corrosion 190 Atmospheric: dewpoint, soils Atmospheric Corrosion 196 Stray current Stray-Current Corrosion 214 Waterline Evaluating Uniform Corrosion 543 High-temperature corrosion Molten salts; glasses Molten Salt Corrosion 216 Liquid metals Liquid Metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... salt and liquid metal environments. Gaseous corrosion is usually associated with high-temperature environments. Atmospheric corrosion is not considered a part of gaseous corrosion because the corrosion reaction occurs in a thin aqueous layer on the surface of the metal. Galvanic and stray current...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... and break down the normal passive oxide film on ferrous metals such as ductile iron, whereas the corrosion rate is largely driven by the oxygen concentration at the corroding surface. Another common failure mechanism for ductile iron pipe is stray-current corrosion. This is prevalent in cities that have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Systems Impressed-Current Cathodic Protection System Stray-Current Pickup Stray-Current Sources Interference Control Inspection Corrosion-Control Records For new wells, the use of an abrasion-resistant underground coating on those portions of the casing exposed to the strata should...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... aeration, alkalinity, and stray currents. The resistance of lead and lead alloys to corrosion by a wide variety of chemicals is attributed to the polarization of local anodes caused by the formation of a relatively insoluble surface film of lead corrosion products. The article also provides information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... the equipment required to perform the CIS. It provides a discussion on the activities that should be performed during the preparation and execution of the CIS. The dynamic stray current identification and compensation by CIS is discussed briefly. The article also explains various factors involved...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... Fig. 6 Stray current interference. Most of the current that powers dc trains returns to the substation via the rails. A small portion of this currentstrays” from the rails and is discharged into the ground. The pipe-type cable provides a low resistance return path. Localized corrosion can occur...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... to copper tubing. Copper tubing is also very susceptible to impingement corrosion, the erosion that occurs in fast-flowing turbulent water. Furthermore, copper is still subject to corrosion—atmospheric, galvanic, and stray current. There are more attractive alternatives. Clear plastic vinyl hose...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... in coatings on existing or newly constructed pipelines, locating areas of stray-current pickup and discharge, identifying possible shorted casings and defective electrical isolation devices, locating possible high-pH stress-corrosion cracking risk areas, and locating areas at risk of external corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Design and Materials Selection Design Factors That Influence Corrosion Drafter's Delusions Quality Assurance and Control Reliability Engineering Location Shape Movement Compatibility End-Grain Attack Stray-Current Effects Galvanic Corrosion Corrosion under Insulation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of homogeneity in a material or its environment. There are cases where a corrosion cell can be an electrolytic cell, for example, in stray current corrosion. The corrosion potential is the mixed electrode potential of a freely corroding material relative to a reference electrode, also called the open-circuit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... with dense zinc brines. More expensive CaBr 2 brines are now often used at densities above about 1.7 g/cm 3 (14 lb/gal) (attainable with CaBr 2 brines) to avoid long-term exposure to ZnCl 2 brines. Stray-Current Corrosion If an extraneous direct current (dc) in the earth is traversed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
.... The grain structure can be further optimized by growing single crystals, which is the current practice in the field of investment casting of superalloy components for gas turbines. Stray Grains Misorientations The growth of feathery grains, also sometimes referred to as twinned dendrites...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... of the tool. Some current strays to the sides, behind the leading edge. The sides of the hole are machined somewhat by the stray current at a lower current density, producing a dull finish. The greater current density at the cutting face yields a finer finish. Microscopic surface defects...