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stray direct current corrosion

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract This article describes the mechanisms of differential corrosion cells corrosion, microbiologically influenced corrosion, and stray direct current corrosion. It discusses the most common causes and contributing factors for corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking, as well as prevention...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... and to determine the stray-current exposure to neighboring utilities. Another corrosion consideration regarding ungrounded versus diode-grounded electric rail systems is the direction of current flow between the track and the earth. In an ungrounded system there is current reversal to and from the track at any...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...) and pipeline (note this may not apply in proximity of power line as voltage increases initially before decreasing in the perpendicular direction from the power line). Consequences of Stray Current A dc discharge from a metal into an electrolyte, such as illustrated in Fig. 2 , causes corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract Stray-current corrosion is an accelerated form of corrosion caused by externally induced electric current. It can occur in unprotected pipelines and submerged metal structures located near electric power sources or anywhere voltage differences exist. This article describes common...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... in the validation of CIS data. It concludes with information on CIS data interpretation. cathodic protection data validation pipelines dynamic stray current close-interval survey CIS equipment data interpretation A CLOSE-INTERVAL SURVEY (CIS) is a series of structure-to-electrolyte direct current...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...) in an aqueous environment, can cause more aggressive attack. Direct-current (dc) stray-current interference is another possible source of external corrosion. These may come from other cathodic protection systems, surface welding, or dc operated equipment. Alternating-current (ac) stray current in high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... dc trains returns to the substation via the rails. A small portion of this currentstrays” from the rails and is discharged into the ground. The pipe-type cable provides a low resistance return path. Localized corrosion can occur where the stray current is discharged by the pipe-type cable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... the extent of existing corrosion may include: Visual inspection Measurement of tank plate thickness (ultrasonic testing, coupon testing, physical measurement) Estimated general corrosion rates through electrochemical procedures Magnitude and direction of galvanic or stray current transferred...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... and measuring the protection current to the casing. Direct Current (dc) stray currents accelerate the corrosion of structures where a positive current leaves the structure to enter the earth or an electrolyte. Stray currents also corrupt potential measurements that are being taken to establish a cathodic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003130
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and aluminum alloys, including pitting corrosion, intergranular corrosion, exfoliation corrosion, galvanic corrosion, stray-current corrosion, deposition corrosion, crevice corrosion, filiform corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue, and hydrogen embrittlement. The article also presents a short...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... currents can cause active corrosion at preferred sites. For example, stray-current attack caused a titanium flange spacer to become anodic during service due to inappropriate grounding of welding equipment on an adjacent part of the plant structure. Designers, when aware of compatibility effects, need...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Aqueous Corrosion 190 Atmospheric: dewpoint, soils Atmospheric Corrosion 196 Stray current Stray-Current Corrosion 214 Waterline Evaluating Uniform Corrosion 543 High-temperature corrosion Molten salts; glasses Molten Salt Corrosion 216 Liquid metals Liquid Metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... (ECN) measurements are more common in the laboratory but are also finding applications in the field, especially for inspection of coatings. Direct Current Electrochemical Techniques The most commonly used electrochemical technique in corrosion detection of buried or immersed structures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... railway systems, grounded electric direct current power, electric welders, cathodic protection systems, and electroplating plants. Stray alternating currents are much less damaging than stray direct currents. It has also been found that corrosion of lead cable sheathing in manhole water depends more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... lots. Fig. 1 Characteristics of external corrosion direct assessment (ECDA) regions. Inspect tool/segments: close interval survey, CIS; direct current voltage gradient, DCVG; pipeline current mapper, PCM The Fig. 1 example is a pipeline segment that indicated reasonably consistent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... when found in immersion service. It can suffer rapid corrosion losses from MIC in certain soil and stagnant water conditions. In addition, carbon steel transmission pipe can be attacked aggressively by stray-current interference in buried applications. This is generally the result of direct current...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., for example, in stray current corrosion. Corrosion Potential The corrosion potential is the mixed electrode potential of a freely corroding material relative to a reference electrode, also called the open-circuit potential. Current: Sign Convention Anodic currents and current densities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... , Ed., Corrosion Effect of Stray Currents and the Techniques for Evaluating Corrosion of Rebars in Concrete , Corrosion of Rebars in Concrete , STP 906, American Society for Testing and Materials , 1984 • Hack H.P. , Galvanic Corrosion Test Methods , NACE International , 1993...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... in the upstream directions, while dendrite arms pointing downstream grow very slowly. The computational capabilities currently remain a limitation for direct simulation of the convection effects on dendritic growth. This type of calculation currently is used to make comparisons with analytical theories...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Potential Sources of Interference with Corrosion Measurements One of the concerns with measuring corrosion using any electrochemical or nonelectrochemical technique is whether there is some outside influence affecting this measurement. Stray currents from power sources and lines and electrical fields...