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strategic element substitution

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... the NASA Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials (COSAM) program. advanced processing concepts alternate materials COSAM program gas turbine engines strategic materials strategic element substitution superalloys US reserves THE SUPERALLOYS are critical to the economic survival...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... Abstract This article provides an overview of integrated weld modeling and presents strategic goals for the welding industry. It discusses the fundamentals of the underlying physics and the methodologies to solve the same. The article presents the pioneering work done to predict the heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... evaluations is a consideration of the economic consequences of design and materials choice. Cost is one of the key strategic elements of product competitiveness, and an early appreciation of the relationship between major design choices and the cost of the resulting product is a vital element of effective...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... synergy between the elements of the materials selection process and presents a general comparison of material properties. Finally, the article provides a short note on computer aided materials selection systems, which help in proper archiving of materials selection decisions for future reference...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... valve components, rolling elements and bearings, paper and wire manufacturing, biomedical implants, heat exchangers, adiabatic diesel engines, advanced gas turbines, and aerospace applications. advanced ceramics aerospace applications mineral processing equipment structural applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... stainless steels with their high contents of the strategic element chromium (see Fig. 695 and 696 ). Another, perhaps more promising, alternative is to develop alloys that contain lesser amounts of chromium. An example is Fe-8Cr-12Ni-4.5Si-1Al-1Mn-0.05C. A ductile fracture characterized by dimple rupture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) mandated that the DoD take action to reduce corrosion costs ( Ref 1 ). The DoD is now (2006) establishing the strategic policy that implements best-known corrosion engineering principles and practices in basic systems design and material and processes selection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... also used in high-temperature thermometers and as a substitute for mercury in switches; it is suitable for these applications because it has the longest liquid range of any element. Gallium has additional uses in glasses and mirror coatings. Throughout the world, alumina is recovered from bauxite by...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... back to the feed metal in the fill tubes to provide sound, shrink-free castings. To facilitate rapid directional solidification, strategically engineered and sequenced water cooling is used. Up to 150 electrically operated and PLC-programmable water solenoid valves are incorporated on the largest...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... corrosion resistance, the aluminides offer low material cost, low density, and conservation of strategic elements. However, the major drawbacks of the aluminides are their low ductility and fracture toughness at ambient temperature and their poor strength at temperatures above 600 °C (1110 °F). Recently...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... resistance and solderability of cadmium. Because cadmium can release toxic fumes when heated, and because it is a strategic element and therefore relatively expensive and subject to availability concerns, tin-zinc coatings are often used as substitutes. Compositions ranging from 10Sn-90Zn to 85Sn-15Zn have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... exposed to H 2 S-H 2 -H 2 O-Ar at 800 °C (1470 °F). The elemental concentrations shown are in at.%; the balance is iron. Source: Ref 23 Detailed information about weld overlay coatings is available in the article “Hardfacing, Weld Cladding, and Dissimilar Metal Joining,” in Welding, Brazing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Welding Society, Department of Energy, Edison Welding Institute, and industrial members from the heavy industry, aerospace, petroleum/energy, and automotive industries developed a research roadmap for the welding industry ( Ref 1 ). The strategic goals for the welding industry by 2020 were identified to...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... together in nature. These transition elements are near neighbors in periods 5 and 6 of group VIII in the periodic table. Ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium each have a density of approximately 12 g/cm 3 , osmium, iridium, and platinum each have a density of about 22 g/cm 3 (see Table 1 ). The platinum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... team needs to find a path through Fig. 9(a) that is effective for them. However, the best practice is to integrate the elements of Fig. 9(a) as much as possible; that is to do all of the steps with iteration loops that are very short in duration. After the steps of Fig. 9(a) are completed, the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... casting requirements, fulfilling each as possible in order, understanding that not all issues can be successfully satisfied with one coating. One measure of a good permanent-mold foundry is its ability to control this element of production. Coatings improve the surface quality of the casting, but there...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... properties, ease of fabrication, excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance, conservation of strategic elements, low density, and low cost. Moreover, FeAl is characterized to possess good resistance to catalytic coking, carburization, sulfidation, and wear. Therefore, iron aluminides are being developed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., wheels, rollers, handles Parts that fasten, hold, or clamp, such as bolts, screws, nails Transmit or convert energy  Heat Heat fins, electric resistance heating elements  Mechanical power Shafts, connecting rods, gears  Electricity Wires, lightbulb elements, resistors Provide a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... 4000 lb) may be transferred from zone to zone. Test thermocouples should be placed strategically at the top, middle, and bottom (inside and outside) of the charge during development of cycles. In spheroidizing, to minimize formation of pearlite on cooling, it is important to ensure that no part of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... disk player 1980 Bell announces plans for TAT-8, first transatlantic fiber-optic cable 1980 Supermarket scanners become common 1982 Peter Moulton develops titanium-sapphire laser 1982 Audio compact disk players introduced in Japan 1983 Ronald Reagan launches Strategic Defense...