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strain-rate-sensitive flow

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract The constitutive relations for metalworking include elements of behavior at ambient temperature as well as high-temperature response. This article presents equations for strain hardening and strain-rate-sensitive flow, with alternate sections on empirically determined properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... so on. The term m is called the strain-rate sensitivity of the material and is defined by the following equation: (Eq 2) m = d   ln ⁡ σ d   ln ε ˙ That is, the strain-rate sensitivity of deformation is determined from the slope of the double logarithmic plot of flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., stage IV work hardening, and the various classes of single-phase alloys. internal-state variable modeling plastic flow stress-strain behavior polycrystal modeling face-centered cubic metals strain rate diffusion hexagonal metals work hardening IF AN ABSOLUTELY PERFECT SINGLE CRYSTAL...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... rates. However, if the strain rate was increased or decreased during torsion testing, the inertia of the acquired substructure prevented changes in flow stress as large as those observed in a series of constant-strain-rate tests. Thus, strain-rate sensitivities measured in rate-change tests are often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... classically observed in RS when plotting the sputtering rate of the target versus the reactive-gas flow rate. The hysteresis phenomenon, which is due to target poisoning, is particularly important in titanium and TiN RS deposition ( Ref 4 ). Berg's model can be used to study the influence of target material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... materials. (a) Low temperature. (b) High temperature How much the flow curve of a material is affected by a change in strain rate is called strain-rate sensitivity. As implied previously, strain-rate sensitivity tends to increase with temperature. Figure 8 illustrates the effect of temperature on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... strain rate and thus to an increase in the flow stress in the necked region due to strain-rate hardening. Such strain-rate hardening inhibits further development of the strain concentration in the neck. Thus, a high strain-rate sensitivity imparts a high resistance to necking and leads to high tensile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... The extent to which strain rate affects the flow stress of a material is given by its strain-rate sensitivity, m . It is the increase in stress (σ) needed to cause a certain increase in plastic-strain e ( ε ˙ ) at a given level of plastic strain (ε) and a given temperature ( T ). (Eq...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... transformation is ferrite, then pearlite, then bainite, and finally martensite, with distinct transition conditions separating these reactions. Flow stress of steels is known to be a function of strain, strain rate, temperature, chemistry, and microstructure. Modeling flow stress as a function of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... structure and texture, crystal structure, and the presence of second phases or solid-solution elements. Material properties include temperatures at which melting, recrystallization, and phase changes occur; the variation of flow stress with strain, strain rate, and temperature; and physical properties such...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... ) Fig. 7 Flow curves dependent on quenching rate for aluminum alloy 6082 where σ is true stress, φ is logarithmic plastic strain, k s is steady-state flow stress, k f is yield stress, and N and p are material parameters dependent on cooling rate and quenching finish temperature. By...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... that significantly affect the fracture propagation rate and fracture appearance. The external environment includes hydrogen, corrosive media, low-melting metals, state of stress, strain rate, and temperature. The mechanism of stress-corrosion cracking in metals such as steels, aluminum, brass, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... billet. The above analysis neglects friction at the workpiece/die interface, redundant work, and both strain and strain-rate hardening. Redundant work, due to changes in the direction of flow of the metal in the die, and friction at the workpiece/die interface can both contribute to a resistance...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... pig iron with controlled amounts of silicon, sulfur and manganese. The hot air used in the furnace at an average temperature of 1200 °C (2190 °F) and a pressurized flow rate of 70 m 3 /s (150,000 scfm) provides oxygen for burning the coke, supports the counter-current flow of gases in the reactor, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... computer-controlled hammers. It describes the three basic designs of high-energy-rate forging (HERF) machines: the ram and inner frame, two-ram, and controlled energy flow. The article reviews forging mechanical presses, hydraulic presses, drive presses, screw presses, and multiple-ram presses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003983
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... discussion on special applications of swagging. automated swaging machines bars die taper angle feed rate lubrication metal flow rotary swaging side clearance surface contaminants swaging dies tubes wires ROTARY SWAGING is an incremental metalworking process for reducing the cross...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... determine gas pressure, vacuum level, gas flow, and gas composition. It focuses on their measuring quenchant characteristics, including bulk temperature, viscosity, composition, and cooling efficiency. The article describes the procedures for detecting variability in the incoming product. It presents...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... conventional air atomized, airless, and electrostatic spray; roller coating; dip coating; flow coating; curtain coating; tumble coating; electrocoating; and powder coating. Surface preparation methods and prepaint treatments for coating systems are also discussed. The article includes information on quality...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... those component parts of the system are exposed. It presents useful guidelines for selecting and using protective coatings in municipal sewerage collection systems and water reclamation facilities in wastewater treatment plants. The article includes annotated flow diagrams of a wastewater collection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Constant-volume assumption of plastic flow A 0 h 0 = A h → d 0 2 h 0 = d 2 h Nominal (engineering) axial strain ( e ), % e = ( L − L 0 ) 100 L 0 Nominal (engineering) axial strain rate ( ε ˙ ) e ˙ = v L 0...