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strain-induced transformation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... schedules. The article describes the metallurgical processes in grain refinement of austenite steel by hot working, such as recovery and recrystallization and strain-induced transformation. The grain refinement in high strength low alloy steel by alloy addition is also discussed. The article provides an...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...) with the accumulated strain prior to recrystallization. The γ-to-α phase transformation takes place in the temperature range between the A r3 (the “upper critical”) and A r1 (the “lower critical”). Its effect on the texture is considered in detail below, as are those of rolling and annealing at...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... heat-treating defects and how they can be controlled. It also presents an example to demonstrate how thermal and transformation-induced strains cause dimensional changes and residual stresses. continuous cooling transformation diagrams continuous heating transformation diagrams creep...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of the transformation of elastic strain in the material to plastic, or permanent strain. copper copper alloys stress-relaxation structural applications thermal softening COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS are used extensively in structural applications in which they are subject to moderately...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... outcome ( Ref 38 ). In contrast to classical plasticity, this means that all strain components leading to inelastic strains, such as from creep, anisotropy, and transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP), are responsible ( Ref 39 ). The specific aspect of inhomogeneous chemical compositions, such as in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... provide the thermal activation energy needed to transform the material to a lower energy state. At elevated temperatures, the activation energy is provided by an increase in thermal energy. As the internal lattice strains are relieved during annealing, the strength decreases while the ductility increases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... elasticity (2 × 105 N/mm2, ε is strain, and α is the coefficient of thermal expansion (1.2 × 10 −5 ). Relative volume changes for different microstructural constituents due to phase transformation with increasing carbon content are illustrated in Fig. 9 . Fig. 9 Effect of carbon content on relative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... applied to magnesium alloys: Annealing Solution heat treatment Precipitation or aging Table 2 Magnesium alloy temper codes Code Description F As-fabricated O Annealing H10, H11 Slightly strain hardened H23, H24, H26 Strain hardened and partially annealed T...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... nucleation and growth of fine grains along the original grain boundaries. At low strain rates, the major mechanisms of elevated-temperature deformation are grain-boundary sliding (shearing), grain-boundary migration, and stress-induced atomic diffusion. Grain-boundary sliding is visible on a workpiece...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... conducting a failure analysis. Both plane stress and plane strain are explored, and instances in which seemingly appropriate two-dimensional analyses lead to erroneous results are presented. Three-dimensional stress transformations are discussed, and a procedure to obtain the principal stresses and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... performance (e.g., strength, elastic modulus, ductility, fracture toughness) of metallic materials. Crystallographic texture, or simply texture for succinctness, may arise as a result of large-strain deformation, dynamic/static recrystallization, grain growth, or phase transformation ( Ref 1 ). A second form...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... boundaries of low energy are composed of periodic arrangements of such units, and grain boundaries with different orientations are a mixture of SUs. Source: Ref 15 Because the two crystals must be strained to permit SUs to be built at their interface, there are dislocations between different kinds of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... insensitive to heat treatment. They generally have poorer forgeability and narrower forging temperature ranges than α-β or β alloys, particularly at temperatures below the β transus. This poorer forgeability is manifested by a greater tendency for strain-induced porosity or surface cracks to occur, which...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... in a spinodal structure vary appreciably, then coherency strains will be present. If the strain induced in the lattice is significant, the system can be stabilized against decomposition. This stabilization results in a displacement of the spinodal curve and the miscibility gap below the chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
.... Figure 3 compares the stress-strain curves for a high-purity, an alpha-beta, and a beta titanium alloy with several mild steels and pure aluminum. Minimum room-temperature tensile properties are presented in Table 2 for various grade specifications. Figure 4 presents ultimate tensile strength (UTS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... stress relieve but low enough to prevent α precipitation by strain aging and recrystallization. The selected annealing temperature and cooling rate for the alloy and shape should be proven by experience or experimentation to not cause distortion. Simple weldments are defined as continuous welds on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... temperature under low strain-rate conditions, and good weldability, which stems from the fact that α alloys generally are insensitive to heat treatment ( Ref 6 ). The addition of a controlled amount β-stabilizing alloy elements causes some retention of the β phase down to room temperature, resulting in a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Nitinol is its so-called superelasticity. As shown in Fig. 5 , an impressive mechanical property of this alloy is a (recoverable) strain that is approximately 8 to 11% (depending on how slightly nickel rich the composition). For comparison, the 0.5% elastic strain range of a typical medical-grade...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... stresses are most often introduced during heat treating or welding and are caused by differential thermal contraction associated with temperature gradients in the material. These stresses cause elastic strains in the material, which manifest themselves as slight departures from the material's normal...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Filters strain out most of the slag or dross that may have been carried in from the melting operation, and pieces of mold refractory that may have come loose during molding. Metal should not rain down from the top of the sprue or into the casting because it will react with the air in the runner system or...