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strain ratcheting

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... The article reviews fatigue assessment methods incorporated in international design and post construction codes and standards, with special emphasis on evaluating welds. Specifically, the stress-life approach, the strain-life approach, and the fracture mechanics (crack growth) approach are described...
Image
Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 32 Schematic showing the imposed stress history, the strain response, and the hysteresis loop. Note that the creep strain accumulated in each cycle can lead to failure due to excessive elongation (ratcheting) before failure due to fatigue. Source: Ref 68 More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... action. The article summarizes the general process of distortion failure analysis. It also discusses three types of distortion failures that provide useful insights into the problems of analyzing unusual mechanisms of distortion. These include elastic distortion, ratcheting, and inelastic cyclic buckling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., limit analysis is very useful to the designer, especially in the analysis of statically indeterminate structures. Figure 1 illustrates the relative stress-strain behavior of a low-carbon steel, a strain-hardening material, and an idealized material—all with the same yield strength (the upper yield...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... In such a case, macroscopic evidence indicating the nature and type of fatigue loading (beach marks, ratchet marks, etc.) may provide useful evidence to the analyst. The ultimate purpose of fractography and the other methods of failure analysis is the determination of the (technical) root cause of failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... of materials for better thermal shock resistance. Finally, if the body is subjected to thermal cycling conditions with superimposed net section loads, the component will undergo thermal ratcheting, which is the gradual accumulation of inelastic strains with cycles ( Ref 22 , 23 ). Failure due to thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cyclic loading Propagation from center of radius of curvature Curvature may reverse on cylindrical sections as crack propagates (see Fig. 40 ) Ratchet marks More likely in cyclic loading Indicates initiation site(s) (see Fig. 40 , 41 ) Adjacent surface and or fracture surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... systems primarily with respect to the inelastic deformation mechanisms of the matrix phase. Whereas the inelastic matrix strain in both ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) and brittle polymer-matrix composites (PMCs) is dominated by the compliance from multiple matrix cracks, the matrix strain in MMCs arises...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... fatigue testing, especially low-cycle isothermal creep-fatigue (ICF) and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF), invariably requires servocontrolled, strain-cycling capabilities to avoid undesirable creep or plasticity ratcheting strains. The maximum cyclic rates during TMF cycling are typically quite low due...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a relatively high number of cycles. Low-cycle fatigue may involve bulk plasticity and/or more plastic strain at the crack tip, whereas the deformation in high-cycle fatigue is primarily elastic. There is no universally accepted demarcation between low- and high-cycle fatigue. Furthermore, some industry...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... permanent structural change occurring in a material subjected to conditions that produce fluctuating stresses or strains at some point or points and that may culminate in cracks or complete fracture after a sufficient number of fluctuations” (ASTM E 1150-87, reapproved in 1993). From the perspectives...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in regions of high stresses and strains, the subsequent crack growth mechanisms, and final fracture. They have also contributed to the optimization of materials, manufacturing, and component design as well as to the conduction of a proper failure analysis. Methods and material characteristics for fatigue...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... results in progressive localized permanent structural change and occurs in materials subjected to fluctuating stresses and strains. It may result in cracks or fracture after a sufficient number of fluctuations. Fatigue fractures are caused by the simultaneous action of cyclic stress, tensile stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... of deformation behavior and concludes with a discussion on lifetime analysis based on a strain approach. crack propagation deformation fatigue failure fatigue resistance fatigue strength high-cycle fatigue low-cycle fatigue multiaxial fatigue stress concentration tensile strength FATIGUE...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... crack formation and propagation mechanisms at the microstructure scale. Cyclic plastic strain behavior is generally classified into three regimes: elastic shakedown, reversed cyclic plasticity, and plastic ratcheting ( Ref 45 , 50 ). Progressive pileup of dislocations in slip bands (Zener mechanism...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... and microscopic fracture surface features. Macroscopic fracture surface features associated with fatigue crack growth include ratchet marks and beachmarks. Ratchet marks are formed by the initiation of multiple cracks that eventually grow together (to reduce surface energy). The steps formed between the cracks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... with hold times. Fatigue-life testing involves stress-controlled ( S - N ) or strain-controlled (ε- N ) cyclic loading, where hold times and waveform patterns are used to evaluate the time-dependent effects of creep conditions on fatigue life. These fatigue-life test methods are used to evaluate materials...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...). 3× Fatigue Marks The formation of cracks under conditions of repeated or cyclic stress has been denoted as fatigue cracking. Zones of crack propagation on fatigue fractures exhibit several types of surface marks, such as beach marks, striations, and ratchet marks. Beach Marks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... detection. In the high-temperature regime, components fail by the accumulation of time-dependent creep strains at these defects, which with time evolve into cracks causing eventual failure. This results in financial losses in repair and downtime costs as well as possible loss of human life ( Ref 6...