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strain measurement

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... geometry and friction conditions; strain measurements; crack detection; and material inhomogeneities, which are to be considered for performing cold upset testing. It describes test characteristics in terms of deformation, free-surface strains, and stress states for performing cylindrical compression tests...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in semiconductor analysis in which strain (Eq 2) can be measured directly ( Ref 15 ). The size of specimens that can be evaluated using XRD can vary widely from as small as the head of a pin to as large as a ship ( Ref 13 , 16 – 19 ), a building/structure ( Ref 20 , 21 ), or a bridge ( Ref 22 – 25...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... scheme, including testing procedures and specific process measurements, that facilitate the application of workability concepts. Using examples, the article applies these concepts to forging, rolling, and extrusion processes. The stress and strain environments described in the article suggest that a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... determination of the true axial compression stress when the test is used to measure the stress-strain curve (flow properties) of the material. However, as the article “Cold Upset Testing,” describes, this feature of the compression test can be used as a workability test by measuring the propensity for surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... representatives are introduced in Fig. 12 and 13 . Fig. 12 Stress-strain curves of nickel and two nickel-cobalt alloys (30 and 60% Co) measured in torsion at room temperature at a rate of 0.001/s ( Ref 64 ). The stress is normalized by the shear modulus. Fig. 13 Yield stress (σ y ) and ultimate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... minimum radius at the neck. (b) Stresses acting on element at point O . σ x is the stress in the axial direction; σ r is the radial stress; σ t is the transverse stress. To avoid these tedious measurements, Bridgman presented an empirical relation between a / R and the true strain in the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... 0.49 0.237 0.613 0.275 0.630 0.50 0.247 0.629 0.285 0.648 (a) In a thin sheet. (b) In a thick material. Source: ASTM E 837-92 Table 3 Hole-drilling residual stress measurements on a detonation gun WC-Co coating Depth Strains, με Average stress α σ x σ y τ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... onset of ductile fracture. The DEFORM software incorporates a subroutine for calculating the likelihood of fracture using the Cockcroft-Latham criteria. The damage value C in Eq 49 was determined from the true stress-true strain curve measured in both compression and with a notched tension test and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... SCC of 2000, 5000, and 7000 series aluminum alloys in a 3% aqueous NaCl solution plus 0.3% H 2 O 2 The parameters that are typically measured in slow strain-rate testing to determine the susceptibility to SCC are: Time to failure Percent elongation Percent reduction in cross...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... external field. The relationship between uniaxial stress and angular-dependent strain is also discussed. The influence of stress on domain walls, and therefore, the generation of Barkhausen noise are described. The article also describes the directional and angular MBN measurements and provides information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique has proven to be very useful in the measurement of crystallographic textures, orientation relationships between phases, and both plastic and elastic strains. This article focuses on backscatter diffraction in a scanning electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... indicates lower image quality (higher dislocation density). (a) 0, (b) 1, (c) 5, and (d) 10% strain The volume fraction of retained austenite measured by EBSD, where all data with confidence index lower than 0.05 were excluded from the analysis as dubious, is a little lower than the one measured by x...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... strain rate on flow stress for various levels of strain-rate sensitivity, m , indicated on the curves There are two commonly used methods of measuring m . One is to obtain continuous stress-strain curves at several different strain rates and compare the levels of stress at a fixed strain using...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of the transformation of elastic strain in the material to plastic, or permanent strain. copper copper alloys stress-relaxation structural applications thermal softening COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS are used extensively in structural applications in which they are subject to moderately...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... residual-stress measurement is widely used, stress is an extrinsic property that is not directly measurable. All methods of stress determination require measurement of some intrinsic properties, such as strain and elastic constants, or force and area, from which the associated stress is calculated. X-ray...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... testing mechanical testing shear testing stress-strain curves tension testing torsion testing HARDNESS is a term that has different meanings to different people: it is resistance to penetration to a metallurgist, resistance to wear to a lubrication engineer, a measure of flow stress to a...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... stress-strain curves in tension ( Ref 19 ). This is usually done by continuously measuring the force that develops as the sample is elongated at a constant rate of extension. Preferably, the sample is made by compression molding and cut into the standard shape to reduce internal stress. In practice...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., and it is uniform throughout the specimen. This is the ideal condition to achieve when the compression test is used to measure the flow stress. When friction is present at the die contact surfaces, bulging occurs, and the strain path curves upward, as shown in Fig. 19 . Fig. 19 (a) Localized...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the merits and limitations of these techniques and describes the various uses of NDT, including leak detection, metrology, structure or microstructure characterization, stress-strain response determination, and rapid identification of metals and alloys. flaw detection identification of metals...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract The design process for ceramic materials is more complex than that of metals because of low-strain tolerance, low fracture toughness and brittleness. The application of structural ceramics to engineering systems hinges on the functional benefits to be derived and is manifested in the...