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strain control fatigue

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... temperature under low strain-rate conditions, and good weldability, which stems from the fact that α alloys generally are insensitive to heat treatment ( Ref 6 ). The addition of a controlled amount β-stabilizing alloy elements causes some retention of the β phase down to room temperature, resulting in a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... employed for response to cyclic loading in the finite-life regime. This concept is primarily intended to address strain-controlled damage in the low-cycle fatigue (LCF) area (e.g., from approximately 10 2 to 10 4 cycles). The lifetime determination in the LCF range is based on the local strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... (HCF) or plastic strain-based criteria for low-cycle fatigue (LCF) have been applied based on transfer of results from tests on relatively small-scale unnotched laboratory specimens to structural components ( Ref 1 ) to estimate crack initiation life. Similarly, test results for crack propagation in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fatigue as a function of test conditions. Figure 6 illustrates the interaction between inelastic deformation and oxidation. Fig. 5 Single-crystal nickel-base superalloy specimens tested at a mechanical strain of 1.3%, a minimum temperature of 550 °C (1020 °F), a maximum temperature of 1050 °C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... and demand precise environmental-control capability and extremely high resolution in the measurement of displacements in cracked bodies associated with creep strains and in the measurement of crack increments at high temperatures. Such experimental capabilities and the concepts of nonlinear fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... range of true axial plastic strain in a fatigue loading cycle, N f is the number of loading cycles to failure, and ε′ f and c are material property parameters. When the number of cycles exceeds the transition fatigue life N T , a smooth specimen will fail by high-cycle fatigue (HCF) according to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... ( 1 π P S X ) and a is the current crack length, a eff is the current crack length plus the remaining monotonic plastic zone size, σ YS is the yield stress, PSX is the stress-state factor ( PSX = 2 for plane stress; PSX = 6 for plane strain). The subscript (ol) indicates the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Illustration of ratcheting leading to continued plastic strain accumulation Fig. 8 Gear-tooth section. Rolling-contact fatigue distinguished by subsurface shear parallel to surface. Note the undisturbed black oxides at the surface, indicating no surface-material movement. Not etched. Source: Ref 30...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cycles. Low-cycle fatigue may involve bulk plasticity and/or more plastic strain at the crack tip, whereas the deformation in high-cycle fatigue is primarily elastic. There is no universally accepted demarcation between low- and high-cycle fatigue. Furthermore, some industry-specific dividing lines...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... defined in terms of the true-stress/true-strain diagram: (Eq 1) σ = K ε n where σ is true stress, ε is true strain, and K is a proportionality constant. An empirical relationship between n and relative density, ρ, for a ferrous preform has been reported to be ( Ref 40 ): (Eq 2) n...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... metallurgical structure that results in unsatisfactory mechanical properties, such as poor fracture toughness or fatigue resistance, can be considered to be a limit on workability. Generally, workability depends on the local conditions of stress, strain, strain rate, and temperature in combination with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... microalloy postdynamic static recrystallization recrystallization refinement static recrystallization strain-induced transformation strength thermomechanical processing toughness THERMOMECHANICAL PROCESSING (TMP) refers to various metalforming processes that involve careful control of thermal and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... described in ASTM E 8, “Methods of Tension Testing of Metallic Materials.” The specimen is exposed to the environment and is stressed under displacement control. For stainless steel in chloride solution, the strain rate is 10 −6 s. One or more of the following parameters are applied to the tensile test at...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... deformation of a metallurgical structure that results in unsatisfactory mechanical properties, such as poor fracture toughness or fatigue resistance, can be considered to be a limit on workability. Generally, workability depends on the local conditions of stress, strain, strain rate, and temperature in...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... heat-treating defects and how they can be controlled. It also presents an example to demonstrate how thermal and transformation-induced strains cause dimensional changes and residual stresses. continuous cooling transformation diagrams continuous heating transformation diagrams creep...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-relaxation testing. Shear testing, torsion testing, and formability testing are also discussed. The discussion of tension testing includes information about stress-strain curves and the properties described by them. compression testing fatigue testing formability testing fracture testing hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... 16 ). The crack tends to follow crystallographic planes, but changes direction at discontinuities, such as grain boundaries. At large plastic-strain amplitudes, fatigue cracks may initiate at grain boundaries ( Ref 14 ). A typical State I fatigue fracture is shown in Fig. 16 . State I fatigue...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article begins with a discussion on the effects of alloying and impurity elements on the properties of aluminum cast alloys and their chemical compositions. It describes various means of structural control, namely, chemistry control, control of element ratios based on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... intermediate grain sizes are produced by a forging and heat treating cycle that is completed above the gamma-prime solvus to allow growth of the austenite grain size. Forging above the gamma-prime solvus results in a uniform, dynamically recrystallized grain size. However, the control of strain uniformity...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... amounts of strain that can be applied to products such as die forgings and impacts. Even aluminum castings have been strengthened by cold pressing for certain applications. Resistance to fatigue (from application of dynamic stresses into the tensile range) increases generally with increasing strength...