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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... hydrogen embrittlement mechanical properties quenching scaling solution heat treatment straightening stress-relief anneal titanium titanium alloys TITANIUM ALLOYS are classified into three groups with the following properties: Alpha alloys Non-heat-treatable for significant...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... backward and forward spinning of tube Fig. 12 Large-radius rollers staggered radially for forward spinning of tube, showing how each roller takes a portion of the total bite ( X ) Fig. 14 Principles of straightening by bending. In all methods shown, the bar is supported at points A and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... after an elevated-temperature shaping process such as casting or extrusion and for which mechanical properties have been stabilized by room-temperature aging. It also applies to products that are flattened or straightened after cooling from the shaping process, for which the effects of the cold work...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... stretching a controlled amount (permanent set 1.5–3% for sheet and plate, 1–3% for rolled or cold-finished rod and bar, 1–5% for hand or ring forging and rolled ring). The products receive no further straightening after stretching.  W52 Solution heat treated (unstable temper) and stress relieved by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... amount for stress relief, and naturally aged (no further straightening after stretching) 2024, Alclad 2024, 2l24, 2219 Plate; rolled or cold-finished bar (2024 only) T3510 Solution heat treated, stretched a controlled amount for stress relief, and naturally aged (no further straightening after...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... placed together. Its characteristic fluorescence in the electron beam and its chemical composition are further identifying characteristics. Fig. 2 SEM image of intermetallics (eutectic silicon and β-iron platelets) nucleated and grown on bifilms, causing the bifilms to straighten and create long...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... known as T6 or T7 temper (depending on aging time), while the latter (natural aging followed by artificial aging) is known as T61 temper. In practice, foundries frequently refer to either as T6. The advantage of the T61 temper is that there is time to straighten the casting if needed. While proper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006467
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... more or less directly proportional to the change in stress up to the elastic limit of the ferrous product. These systems cannot be used to inspect hot rolled or annealed bars unless they have been subjected to some uniform cold work, such as rotary straightening for round material or planar-type...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
....) and smaller in diameter are cold drawn from coil stock by various methods. With one method, cold-drawn coils produced on the various machines described previously are straightened and cut into bars in a separate operation on machines designed for that purpose. Some in-line methods and equipment begin...
Book Chapter

By Ted Kostilnik
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... process has other useful applications, such as relieving tensile stresses that contribute to stress-corrosion cracking, forming and straightening of metal parts, and testing the adhesion of silver plate on steel. When individual particles of shot in a high-velocity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... bonding, and forming operations, such as shaft straightening and punch press operations. In general, AE inspection can be considered whenever the process stresses the material and produces permanent deformation. In structural testing, AE inspection is used on pressure vessels, storage tanks, pipelines...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... have been reported ( Ref 18 , 19 ). Fig. 13 Comparison of spray systems used in continuous casting. (a) Conventional spray. (b) Air-water mist spray. Source: Ref 17 The straightening operation on curved strand casters has required special design and operating control. In general...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... sulfur to enhance machinability. Figure 9 shows unidentified stringers on the fracture surface of a 4340 steel forging. Overload cracking occurred during straightening after the forging had been heat treated to a tensile strength of 1380 to 1520 MPa (200 to 220 ksi). Porosity is the name applied...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003996
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... alloy forgings are often straightened between solution treatment and quench and artificial aging. Straightening is typically accomplished cold using either hand (frequently press assisted) or die straightening techniques. Many aluminum alloy open- and closed-die forgings in the 2 xxx and 7 xxx...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... forming, drawing of irregular-shape parts, straightening, operations requiring high and variable forces, and operations requiring variable or partial strokes In most mechanical presses, a flywheel is the major source of energy applied to the slides by cranks, gears, eccentrics, or linkages...