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stoichiometric carbon content

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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 7 Comparison of stoichiometric carbon content and average alloy carbon content in conventional and PM HSS More
Image
Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 8 Comparison of stoichiometric carbon content and average alloy carbon content in conventional and PM cold working tool steels and corrosion resistant PM steels More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Abstract This article describes the effects of undissolved carbides formed by segregation of alloying elements on the hardness of the powder-metallurgical (PM) high-alloy tool steels (HATS). It explains the calculation of exact stoichiometric carbon content that depends on the required...
Image
Published: 01 December 1998
to lower the carbon content to 0.01 wt% at p CO of 0.01 atm. However, for carbon levels greater than 0.05 wt% (region B), an external oxygen source is necessary before vacuum treatment to raise the oxygen level to region O, if 0.01 wt% carbon is desired in the steel at p CO of 0.01 atm. Note More
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Published: 01 December 2008
to lower the carbon content to 0.01 wt% at p CO of 0.01 atm. However, for carbon levels greater than 0.05 wt% (region B), an external oxygen source is necessary before vacuum treatment to raise the oxygen level to region O, if 0.01 wt% C is desired in the steel at p CO of 0.01 atm. Note that regions More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... with very high percentages of oxygen and excess carbon, such as Nicalon and Tyranno Lox M, to the near-stoichiometric (atomic C/Si ≈ 1) fibers, such as Sylramic. These large compositional differences not only impact chemical and thermostructural properties, but also result in a large variation in electrical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005989
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... to create the corrosion-resistant oxide layer of a stainless steel. Thus, in the early 20 th century (when the first stainless steels were being developed), the attainable levels of carbon removal required a 16% chromium content to obtain the corrosion resistance of a stainless steel. Extra chromium...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
.... For heat treating of steel and copper, direct heating furnaces are controlled at or near stoichiometric conditions to avoid oxidation. Depending on the specific combustion process, the optimum oxygen content in terms of efficiency is 1 to 3% excess O 2 . The optimum value of CO is in the range of 200...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0009206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
..., which solidify as a eutectic. They contain major elements (iron, carbon, silicon), minor (<0.1%), and often alloying (>0.1%) elements. Cast iron has higher carbon and silicon contents than steel. Because of the higher carbon content, the structure of cast iron, as opposed to that of steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... affect cemented carbide powder behavior during subsequent processing and final properties. Chemical Composition The most important chemical aspect of tungsten carbide powder is its carbon content. Stoichiometric tungsten carbide has a total carbon content (C t ) of 6.135 wt%, and tungsten carbide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., silicon), minor (<0.1%), and often alloying (>0.1%) elements. Cast iron has higher carbon and silicon contents than steel. Because of the higher carbon content, it solidifies with a eutectic. The structure of cast iron, as opposed to that of steel, exhibits a carbon-rich phase. Depending primarily...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... 45–55 SiO 2 15–20 FeO 0.50–1.5 CaF 5–15 Adjustments are made in the carbon content of the bath by the addition of a low-phosphorus pig iron. After the proper bath temperature is obtained, ferromanganese and ferrosilicon are added and the furnace is tapped. Aluminum is generally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... for hardening. This article provides a model-based description of the development of residual stresses during case hardening. It also describes the influence and effects of residual stresses and distortion in hardening, carburizing, and nitriding processes of the steel. axial stress carbon content...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... copper layer into the iron particle. Tight control of carbon levels, both on the surface and inside, in PM parts is one of the distinguishing attributes of the high-quality PM producer. The carbon content affects many of the properties of the finished part such as dimensional tolerances...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... is shown in Fig. 5 . The high-pressure welding allows evaluation of the CO reaction. Considering the CO reaction: (Eq 13) C + O = CO the law of mass action gives: (Eq 14) k = P CO [ C ] [ O ] where [C] and [O] are the weld metal carbon and oxygen contents...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.../activator. Adjust to proper operating conditions if necessary. Poor throwing power or plating distribution Metal content too high Analyze and adjust. Plating current density too low Check and adjust current setting. Pitting Organic contamination Check for carbon and treat if necessary. Oil...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of silicon (typically 1.0 to 4.0%) and thus are Fe-C-Si alloys. Compared to steels, cast irons have lower melting temperatures, higher fluidity, and are less reactive with mold materials. The high carbon content results in lower density and improved castability, and silicon provides strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...% tungsten carbide because the space inside the wire is limited by the sheath thickness and wire diameter. Fig. 6 Micrograph of 1.6 mm (0.06 in.) diameter tungsten carbide wire The monocrystalline carbide, WC, has a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure and a stoichiometric carbon content...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
.... The bct structure also occupies a larger atomic volume than ferrite and austenite, as summarized in Table 1 for different microstructural components as a function of carbon content. The density of martensite thus is lower than ferrite (and also austenite, which is denser than ferrite). The resulting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... ) or dolomite [CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 ]. Combustion of the carbonaceous contents in the cellulose in the arc will also result in CO/CO 2 . The CO/CO 2 atmosphere can be balanced to provide a reducing (and thus protective) atmosphere. At high temperatures, CO 2 or CO will react with carbon to achieve equilibrium...