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stiffened-skin structures

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...Abstract Abstract Maintainability is a function of the durability, damage tolerance, and repairability of a structure. This article discusses the configurations of composite structures, such as sandwich, stiffened-skin, and monolithic structures, used in commercial aircraft composites...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002170
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... 2. Brimm D.J. , “Unistructure—A New Concept for Light Weight Integrally Stiffened Skin Structures,” SAE Technical Paper 801231, Society of Automotive Engineers , 1980 3. Holman E. , “Method of Etching Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys,” U.S. Patent 2,869,267 , 1959...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... cases, there is a very real possibility that any skin wrinkling would delaminate the structure at the stiffeners. The induced peel stresses are proportional to the fourth power of the thickness of the members being bonded together. Consequently, excessively thick postbuckled co-cured or bonded composite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
.... This requires abandonment of the two-bay skin crack criterion if the same structural geometry is to be used. Figure 7(a) illustrates a resistance curve analysis for the typical lower wing surface element considered. This figure shows that if a skin half crack length of 1.0 in. exists at a broken stiffener...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... for skin-stiffener debonding. (a) Cross section of composite part. (b) Detail of flange tip. (c) Simplified test specimen. (d) Loads applied to skin Fig. 14 Skin-stringer debonding fatigue life prediction methodology. (a) Detail of lamina with initial delamination. (b) FEA using VCCT analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... for commercial transports. For metal skins of commercial transport structures, discrete source damage is usually represented by a cut. The length of cut has traditionally been two bays of skin including one severed stiffener or frame (see Fig. 1 ). Similar configurations are cited in MIL-A-83444 for “fail...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... providing aerodynamic lift. The V-22 wing panels have integrally stiffened laminate skins. The fuselage of the V-22 ( Fig. 19 ) is also made of composite materials that make up 50% of its structural weight. Fig. 19 V-22 material applications. Structure (wing, fuselage, empennage, nacelle, rotor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... , and inclusion of fittings and bosses. Again, if one approaches a composite structure with the same limitations imposed by metal construction, the potential of the composite material is not achieved. For example, an aircraft fuselage is constructed using thin skin stiffened by longerons along its length...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... can be used. Fig. 8 Integration of stiffener and skin. (a) Mechanical/adhesive attachment. (b) Cocured. (c) Integrated lay-up. (d) Redesign Again, if one approaches a composite structure with the same limitations imposed by metal construction the potential of the composite material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... mechanical properties compared with those of alloy 2024. Alloy 2027-T3511 extrusions are typically used for stringers to stiffen wing skin panels machined from damage tolerant 2xxx alloy plates. This datasheet provides information on key alloy metallurgy and processing effects on mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... is at flange ends. The location of the failure is strongly dependent on the ratio of stiffener/skin stiffness; the lower the ratio, the more useful is the test. Load-introduction attachments to subcomponent ends and side supports are designed to simulate those used in the full-size structure, which may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Skin-Stiffener Panels Containing Unreinforced Penetration Holes , Proc. 5th DoD Composite Repair Technology Workshop ( Coeur d'Alene, ID ), Nov 2000 28. Rousseau C. , Baker D. , and Hethcock D. , Parametric Study of Three-Stringer Panel Compression-After-Impact Strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... or skin panels are cured either as a separate structural part or skin panel, or assembled together and co-cured/co-bonded as a contoured skin panel with structural stiffeners ( Fig. 6 ). Laminates that are laid as a contour part usually remain on the contour tool ( Fig. 2 ). The contour tool...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... at lift-off. In addition to honeycomb sandwich structures, composite payload shrouds have also been constructed using an advanced grid-stiffened (AGS) structure, a rib-skin configuration. A conical AGS shroud fabricated by Air Force Research Laboratory, New Mexico, was successfully flown in 1997. Advanced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... stresses in a curved laminate. (a) The force couples (– P , + P ) act on the curved laminate. (b) The radial stresses (σ r ) must balance the vertical components of these loads. Fig. 8 Laminated beam in three-point bending. (a) Load diagram. (b) Shear diagram Fig. 11 Skin-to-structure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., spoilers, and ailerons. Elastomeric tooling provides the means for fabricating integrally stiffened skins with a co-cured substructure in a single curing operation. Secondary bonding is thereby eliminated, substantially reducing direct manufacturing costs. The basic mechanism of thermal expansion molding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... of alloy 2196 for extruded parts. Alloy 2196 T8511 extrusions are covered by AMS4416 and MMPDS in the thickness range of 1.5–25.0 mm (0.06–1.0 in). Alloy 2196 extrusions are particularly suited to stiffening damage-tolerant fuselage and lower wing skin. It is also used in buckling applications...
Book Chapter

By Don O. Evans
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... shell free of frames and stiffeners. The shells are also free of rivets and skin joints. Because the shells do not contain frames, there is more usable space for passengers or cargo. FIBER PLACEMENT is a unique process combining the differential tow payout capability of filament winding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... approximately 2-to-1 right-to-left and upper-to-lower skin thickness ratios. Fig. 12 Bladder inflation molding for hollow RTM structures. Source: Ref 16 Fig. 13 Lightweight nickel shell mold with cast aluminum egg-crate stiffener. Courtesy of Ford Motor Company Fig. 14 Mold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... structure for which the skins were procured and then bonded to a glass-polyimide honeycomb using a commercially available adhesive based on PMR- 15 ( Ref 26 ). Interest has also been shown in applying PMR-15 composites to filament-wound structures. In 1985, a small, integrally flanged carbon-PMR conical...