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stereological parameters

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... The article concentrates on the basic properties of digital measurements that are the core of quantitative image analysis. It provides a brief description of the specimen and apparatus preparation as well as the image acquisition. The article explains how to evaluate stereological parameters and provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... of experimentally validated finite-element models for analyzing the classes of shearing processes. The article also discusses the use of microstructural characterization with stereology to render three-dimensional volumetric parameters. It concludes with information on the numerical simulation of an edge-shearing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... and measurement of stereological and nonstereological parameters. Most systems incorporate data-handling devices, which range from desktop calculators to minicomputers. Finally, each system has a device to produce a hard copy of the data. Input Devices The most common source of images is an upright...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Quantifying microstructural parameters has received considerable attention and success in developing procedures and using such data to develop structure/property relationships has been achieved. This article reviews many of the simple stereological counting measurements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... data) Fig. 1 Depth of electroless nickel plating on AISI 4150 alloy steel as a function of time at 95 °C (205 °F) Abstract Abstract This article reviews many commonly used stereological counting measurements and the relationships based on these parameters. The discussion covers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract The objective of quantitative metallography/stereology is to describe the geometric characteristics of the features. This article discusses the geometric attributes of microstructural features that can be divided into: the numerical extents and the number density...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in aluminum-rich aluminum alloys Table 3 Characteristics of phase constituents in aluminum-rich aluminum alloys Phase Crystal lattice Chemical composition (a) Morphology of precipitates System, space group Cell parameters, Angstroms wt% at.% Si Cubic, A4 a = 5.43054 100 100...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of the 6th International Congress for Stereology , Gainesville, FL , 1983 , p 75 – 80 24. Underwood E.E. , Stereological Analysis of Fracture Roughness Parameters , 25th Anniversary Volume, International Society for Stereology , 1987 25. Scriven R.A. and Williams H.D...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of matching profiles of fatigue striations in nickel Table 6 Analysis of matching profiles of fatigue striations in nickel Profile roughness parameters, R L Profiles in Fig. 19(a) Profiles in Fig. 19(b) I′I′ II′II′ I″I″ II″II″ Fig. 19(a) and 19(b) 1.164 1.251 1.251...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... performed on the fracture profiles. Significant progress has been made in the development of practical, unbiased, and efficient stereological techniques during the last decade or so ( Ref 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 ). Several geometric parameters that quantify various aspects of fracture surface geometry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... metallography or stereology relates two-dimensional features, as seen on photographs or images, to the actual three-dimensional microstructure. Common measurements include grain size, inclusion rating, phase determination, and density of dislocations. E.E. Underwood has described the basic measurement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003742
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Stereological procedures of the three-dimensional microstructures must be utilized so that the measurements of size scale and size distributions are made correctly and accurately. Stereological relationships between the measurement and the actual parameter include those developed more generally ( Ref 44...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... parameters are established to provide specific grain sizes. The number, size, and distribution of second-phase particles, such as inclusions, are frequently specified, and quantitative metallographic procedures have been developed to describe microstructure. This section on microanalysis focuses mainly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... used morphological parameter to characterize dendritic structures in most technical alloys. In the case of gray cast iron, SDAS was used with caution. Only a few authors—Ruff et al. ( Ref 19 ), Wilberfors et al. ( Ref 20 ), and Fourlakidis et al. ( Ref 21 )—report results from SDAS measurements. Recent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., phases, and microconstituents to engineering properties. The article also describes the effects that the structure of raw ceramic materials and green products and processing parameters have on the ultimate structure and properties of the processed piece. The effects that trace chemistry and processing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... fraction, binder mean free path, carbide grain size and shape, and the contiguity, which is the particle-to-particle grain-boundary ratio to total surface area. Using well-established stereological techniques, microstructural parameters such as the volume fraction of binder, the WC mean linear intercept...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... to briefly review how process variations influence coating characteristics. The controllable parameters for each of the major thermal spray types are different, but all share some common fundamentals. Converting feedstock material (whether powders, wires, or rods) into a coating requires: Heat energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Strength of Cemented Carbides,” ASTM B406-96(2010), ASTM , 2010 18. Exner H.E. and Gurland J. , A Review of Parameters Influencing Some Mechanical Properties of Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt Alloys , Powder Metall. , Vol 13 ( No. 25 ), Spring 1970 , p 13 – 31 19. Fang Z.Z...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... biblical times that a heavily worked piece of metal can be softened by heating. This takes place largely by means of recrystallization, a mechanism that is clearly influenced by a number of experimental parameters in a manner that is outlined subsequently. (Recovery also plays a role but is not discussed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005435
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... of the transformation is needed. A Landau free energy (LFE) is a symmetry-allowed polynomial expansion in the order parameter that characterizes the transformation ( Ref 4 ), for example, strain tensor components and/or (intraunit cell) shuffle modes, as represented schematically in Fig. 2 . A minimization of this LFE...