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steelmaking practices

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article presents a detailed account on the process flow, composition, alternative sources, and the advancement of ironmaking, steelmaking and secondary steelmaking practices. Some steels, such as bearing steels, heat-resistant steels, ultrahigh strength missile and aircraft steels...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... hole, water-cooling system, preheat and furnace scrap burners, and ladles. The article describes the acid and basic steelmaking practices. It discusses the raw materials used, oxidation process, methods of heat reduction, and deoxidation process in the practices. The article provides a discussion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract This article describes ironmaking and steelmaking practices (melt or liquid processing, including hot metal desulfurization) and discusses the evolution of these processes and their effects on steel properties. The physical chemistry of steelmaking may appear deceptively simple...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract Notch toughness is an indication of the capacity of a steel to absorb energy when a stress concentrator or notch is present. The notch toughness of a steel product is the result of a number of interactive effects, including composition, deoxidation and steelmaking practices...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Abstract This article reviews the selection and formability characteristics of steels, with an emphasis on low-carbon steels and some coverage on the forming of high-carbon steels. It describes the key factors that affect the formability of steels in terms of steelmaking practices, surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... the properties of complicated shapes, and various simulative forming tests. The mechanical properties of steel sheet that influence its forming characteristics, either directly or indirectly, can be measured by uniaxial tension testing. The article covers the effects of steel composition, steelmaking practices...
Image
Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 9 Plot of relative contact fatigue life for tapered roller bearings versus steel cleanness for several steel heats produced by various electric-arc furnace steelmaking practices More
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... for deoxidation, decarburization, and adjustment of chemical composition, including gases. Refining times in the furnace can often be shortened and production rates increased with an efficient secondary steelmaking practice. Ladle metallurgy also allows the control of teeming temperature, especially required...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... A semantic distinction can be made between alloying elements and residual elements; the latter are not intentionally added to the steel, but result from the raw materials and steelmaking practices used to produce the steel. Any particular element can be either alloying or residual. For example, some nickel...
Book Chapter

By R.J. Glodowski
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... for melting, exacting steelmaking practices, selective discard (when the steel is produced in ingots), extensive billet preparation, and extensive testing and inspection. Occasionally, alloy steel of a special quality is specified for the manufacture of wire rod. Aircraft quality alloy steel may...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003094
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... formability is required, steel killed with aluminum, regardless of the method of casting or manufacture, is preferred. Further details regarding steelmaking and deoxidation practice are given in the Section “Steelmaking Practices and Their Influence on Properties” in this Handbook. The width...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... below apply to them. Charpy V-Notch (CVN) Toughness Clean steelmaking practices have significantly improved the toughness of Cr-Mo steels over the last 15 years by reducing the content of residual elements responsible for some types of embrittlement. Refinement of grain size and shape control...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... shapes by means of severe cold plastic deformation by cold heading, cold extrusion, cold upsetting, or cold expansion involving movement of metal by expansion and/or compression. Such bars are obtained from steel produced by closely controlled steelmaking practices and are subject to special inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003841
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Brick C 987 Practice for Vapor Attack on Refractories for Furnace Superstructures C 1223 Test Method for Testing of Glass Exudation from AZS Fusion-Cast Refractories Source: Ref 8 Corrosion of Steelmaking Refractories The steelmaking industry is a major refractory user, consuming...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... and sell to. However, a few steel scrap dealers now own steelmaking facilities that utilize the scrap they collect as their primary feedstock material. Scrap metal dealers also tend to specialize in one type of metal, or they have specialized divisions that service the various metals markets. Iron...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... There are, nevertheless, many limitations; for example, phase diagrams are readily available for no more than three constituents, while in practical cases of magnesia or dolomite basic refractories, one needs to characterize the CaO-MgO-FeO-Fe 2 O 3 -Cr 2 O 3 -SiO 2 system. At any rate, for the basic refractories...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... operation has been described in the article “Steelmaking Practices and Their Influence on Properties” in this Handbook. In short, it consists of continuously charging the solid material from the top and blowing hot air from the bottom, causing a counter current flow of solid and gas where heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
..., improvements in materials, design, and manufacturing have now made the use of these bearings in high-speed applications practical ( Ref 4 ). Principal types of roller bearings are cylindrical, needle, tapered, and spherical. Gears Gears transmit motion and force from one machine component to another...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... steelmaking and deoxidation practice are given in the articles “Steel Processing Technology” and “Classification and Designation of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels” in this Volume. The width differentiation between sheet and strip made of plain carbon steel depends on the rolling process. It should...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for stainless and alloy steel refining, oxygen, argon, and nitrogen are injected into the steel bath through submerged, side-mounted tuyeres (See Fig. 16 in the article “Steelmaking Practices and Their Influence on Properties” in this Handbook). This causes a shift in the decarburization thermodynamics, which...