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Book Chapter

By Loren Godfrey
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract Steel springs are made in many types, shapes, and sizes, ranging from delicate hairsprings for instrument meters to massive buffer springs for railroad equipment. The primary focus of this article is small steel springs that are cold wound from wire. Wire springs are of four types...
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 10 Relaxation curves for steel helical springs of music wire (ASTM A 228), chromium-silicon spring wire (ASTM A 401), oil-tempered spring wire (ASTM A 229), chromium-vanadium spring wire (ASTM A 231), and hard-drawn spring wire (ASTM A 227) at (a) 90 °C (200 °F) and (b) 150 °C (300 °F More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 1 Minimum tensile strength of steel spring wire. VSQ, valve-spring quality More
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Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 259 Fatigue fracture in AISI 1060 steel spring wire, 4.6-mm (0.18-in) diam, originating at two or more crack nuclei at and above lower shoulder at left edge. 7× More
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Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 499 Fatigue fracture in an AISI 6150 steel spring leg of an aircraft main landing gear, heat treated to a minimum tensile strength of 1550 MPa (225 ksi) and a hardness of 49 HRC. Visual inspection of the fracture surfaces showed that the fatigue crack originated at the location marked More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 9 Fatigue curves for peened and unpeened steel spring wires More
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Published: 01 January 1994
Fig. 1 Fatique curves for peened and unpeened and steel spring wires More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 12 Split wire in a 3.8-mm (0.148-in.) diam carbon steel spring (top). The spring at bottom appears to have a seam along its entire length, as indicated by the arrow. More
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Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 1 Scatter in the fatigue life for shot-peened carbon steel spring wire (ASTM A 227, Class II steel). It is not uncommon for some springs to survive 10 million cycles when other springs from the same batch, tested at the same time, have failed at 400,000 cycles. The S - N curve shown More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 11 Relaxation curves for steel helical springs made of (a) 302 stainless steel and (b) 631 stainless steel. The curves represent relaxation after exposure for 72 h at the indicated temperatures. More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 3 Maximum working stress for bending flat and leaf springs made of 1095 steel More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 6 Modified Goodman diagrams for steel helical springs made from music wire (a and b) and 302 stainless steel wire (c and d). The graphs on the left (a and c) plot maximum allowable stresses for 10 million cycles for a similar group of wire diameters. All stresses were corrected More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 7 Modified Goodman diagrams for steel helical springs made from chromium-silicon steel (a and b), oil-tempered wire (c and d), and hard-drawn spring wire (e and f). The graphs on the left (a, c, and e) plot maximum allowable stress for 10 million cycles for 3.18 mm (0.125 in.) diam wires More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 18 Hardness distribution for steels for hot-wound helical springs. Alloy steels were oil quenched from 845 °C (1550 °F); 1095 was oil quenched from 885 °C (1625 °F). Data were obtained from hot-rolled, heat-treated laboratory test coupons, 305 mm (12 in.) long. Specimens were sectioned More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 6 Valve springs made from patented and drawn high-carbon steel wire. Distorted outer spring (left) exhibited about 25% set because of proeutectoid ferrite in the microstructure and high operating temperature. Outer spring (right) is satisfactory. More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 18 Stress versus depth profiles for different steel coil springs More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 6 Valve springs made from patented and drawn high-carbon steel wire. Distorted outer spring (a) exhibited approximately 25% set because of proeutectoid ferrite in the microstructure and high operating temperature. Outer spring (b) is satisfactory More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 18 Stress versus depth profiles for different steel coil springs More