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steel grades

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... method of production. Aluminum killing and the steel industry's movement from ingot casting to continuous casting have added new sheet steel products for the porcelain enamel industry. At the same time, these industry changes have resulted in the gradual withdrawal of some long-time enameling-grade...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... A 242 continues to be used by producers and purchasers of weathering steels in North America and elsewhere for materials up to and including 100 mm (4 in.) thickness. When the heavier (thicker) structural grades of HSLA steels became available, they were described and specified by ASTM A 588 ( Ref 5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... associated age hardening. Extra-deep-drawing-quality grades are made with steel that has been vacuum degassed to very low carbon levels and stabilized with additions of titanium and/or niobium. The stabilized substrates are relatively immune to the thermal effects of hot dipping and provide excellent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the various techniques for removing contaminants in the surface preparation of steel for hot-dip coatings: wet cleaning methods, including alkaline cleaning, electrolytic cleaning, chemical pickling, and electrolytic pickling; flame cleaning and furnace...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... to the steel to inhibit or reduce corrosion rates. Thus, the steel selected for the bridge would be a high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) structural steel such as ASTM A572, grade 50 or possibly a weathering steel such as ASTM A588. A typical HSLA steel has a ferrite-pearlite microstructure as seen in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... stainless steels. Medical device considerations for stainless steels, such as fatigue strength, corrosion resistance, and passivation techniques, are reviewed. The article describes the process features of the implant-grade stainless steels, including type 316L, type 316LVM, nitrogen-strengthened, ASTM...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Selection of appropriate grades of steel will enable the steel to perform for very long times with minimal corrosion, but an inadequate grade can corrode and perforate more rapidly than a plain carbon steel will fail by uniform corrosion. This article describes the effect of chemical...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003098
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Table 1 Summary of specification requirements for various carbon steel castings Unless otherwise noted, all the grades listed in this table are restricted to a phosphorus content of 0.040% max and a sulfur content of 0.045% max. Class or grade Tensile strength (a) Yield strength (a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the identification systems for various grades of wrought stainless steels, namely, the American Iron and Steel Institute numbering system, the Unified Numbering System, and proprietary designations. It elaborates on five major families of stainless...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... treated structural low-alloy grades. chemical composition heat treated structural low-alloy grades heat treatment high-strength low-alloy steels high-strength structural carbon steels plate thickness steel products tensile properties THE STEELS discussed in this article are characterized...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., microstructure and properties. It discusses the grade designations and compositions of cast stainless steels. The article describes the mechanical properties, applications, and corrosion characteristics of corrosion-resistant steel castings and heat-resistant steel castings. cast stainless steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract Carbon and low-alloy steels are considered resistant only to very mild corrosives, while the various high-alloy grades are applicable for varying situations from mild to severe services, depending on the particular conditions involved. This article describes the factors that must be...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... as type metals, terneplate, foils, and building construction materials. Lead is also used as an alloying element in steel and in copper alloys to improve machinability. The article concludes with information on the principles of lead corrosion, corrosion resistance of lead in water, atmospheres...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... alloying and deformation processing. Titanium is nonmagnetic and has good heat-transfer properties. Its coefficient of thermal expansion is somewhat lower than that of steels and less than half that of aluminum. Titanium and its alloys have melting points higher than those of steels, but maximum useful...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... period of time and at different institutions. These include Peeyush Nandwana and Antariksh Singh at UNT. In the early days of arthroplastic surgery, stainless steel was considered a viable implant material mainly because of its availability and processing ease. Alloying additions of chromium, nickel...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-reduction or direct steelmaking processes under development will eliminate this sharp distinction, if successfully developed. Steelmaking can be broadly classified into two steps: primary steelmaking in a converter or furnace and secondary steelmaking in a ladle. Ordinary grades of steel may bypass the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract The Atlas of Fractographs contains more than 1,300 fractographs, corresponding to 30 materials, including common grades of iron and steel, nonferrous metals and alloys, composites, and polymers. This article serves as the table of contents, describing how the information in the Atlas...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003188
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... alloys cubic boron nitride cutting tool materials high-speed tool steels machining applications material grade selection polycrystalline diamond SELECTING THE PROPER CUTTING TOOL MATERIAL for a specific machining application can provide substantial advantages, including increased productivity...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-speed steels and tungsten high-speed steels are similar in many other respects, including hardening ability. Typical applications for both categories including cutting tools of all sorts, such as drills, reamers, end mills, milling cutters, taps, and hobs. Some grades are satisfactory for cold-work...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... success as the selection of the class/grade itself. With few exceptions, all tool steels must be heat treated to develop specific combinations of wear resistance, resistance to deformation or breaking under loads, and resistance to softening at elevated temperature. Heat treating procedures vary...