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steel boilers

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the environmental factors and kinetics of atmospheric corrosion, aqueous corrosion, and soil corrosion of carbon steels. It also provides information on corrosion in concrete and steel boilers. aqueous corrosion atmospheric corrosion concrete...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (3000 °F). By the time the flue gas has left the furnace, it has been cooled to 925 to 1095 °C (1700 to 2000 °F), and convection is the predominant mode of heat transfer. Second, conduction through the steel boiler tubes transfers heat to the internal fluid. Although conduction is important, boiler...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Candidate alloys for ultra supercritical power plant boilers Table 1 Candidate alloys for ultra supercritical power plant boilers Trade designation ASME code/code case Preferred application (a) Metal temperature of application (b) , °C Ferritic steels HCM2S 2199 WW ≤575...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
...-carbon or carbon-molybdenum steel still tubes for refinery service A 178 (a) Resistance-welded carbon and carbon-manganese steel boiler tubes A 179 (a) Seamless cold-drawn low carbon steel heat-exchanger or condenser tubes A 192 (a) Seamless carbon steel boiler tubes for high-pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Wastage rates of carbon steel tubes and 625 overlay tubes in a finishing superheater in a waste-to-energy boiler in New York Table 1 Wastage rates of carbon steel tubes and 625 overlay tubes in a finishing superheater in a waste-to-energy boiler in New York Tube construction Wastage rate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...× Fig. 8 Microstructure of a carbon steel boiler tube subjected to prolonged overheating below Ac 1 showing (a) decomposition of pearlite into ferrite and spheroidal carbides (original magnification: 400×) and (b) spheroidization of carbide and grain-boundary voids characteristic of tertiary creep...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
...-1.0Mo steels were annealed at 900 °C (1650 °F). The 1.0Cr-1.0Mo-0.25V steel was normalized at 955 °C (1750 °F) and tempered at 650 °C (1200 °F). H11, hardened 1010 °C (1850 °F), tempered 565 °C (1050 °F) Fig. 9 Estimated design allowable stresses (Section VIII of ASME Boiler and Pressure...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... These applications include nuclear reactor vessels, heat exchangers, oil industry tubular, chemical processing components, pulp and paper industries, furnace parts, and boilers used in fossil fuel electric power plants. The article provides a brief introduction on corrosion resistance of wrought stainless steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., hydrogen-embrittlement fracture, fatigue crack propagation, and corrosion fatigue of components made from high-carbon steels. The high-carbon steel components include bull gear, drive shaft, power boiler stoker grate, steel wheel, spring wire, suspension spring, automotive engine valve spring, power spring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... sleeves, automotive bolts, hydraulic jack shafts, crank handle collars, boiler tubes, drive shafts, bicycle pedal axles, lift-truck hydraulic-piston rods, and steel springs. boilers delayed fracture fatigue crack propagation fatigue fracture fractograph impact fracture intergranular fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., brittle fracture, fracture by overpressurization, inclusion effect, fatigue crack propagation, ductile fatigue striation, secondary cracking, intergranular fracture, and elevated-temperature fracture of alloy steels used in pressure vessels, steam boiler superheater tubes, and box-girder bridges...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... methods, process selection criteria, solution composition, equipment used, and control of process variables in mineral acid cleaning. The article then describes the advantages and disadvantages of organic acid cleaning. Applications, including boiler cleaning, stainless steel cleaning, and removal of iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... The article examines the corrosion problems in high-yield mechanical pulping, sulfite process, neutral sulfite semichemical pulping, chemical recovery, tall oil plants, wastewater treatment, and recovery boilers. It explains the stages of chlorine-based and nonchlorine bleaching, process water reuse...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in the absence of the other” ( Ref 5 ). Their research showed that caustic embrittlement of steel plates used in boilers was the result of the carbon steel boiler plate (a susceptible metal/alloy), the presence of sodium hydroxide (a specific environment) that formed in boiler water from sodium bicarbonate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... piping should be replaced with low-alloy chromium-bearing steel piping, and the water chemistry control should be appropriately altered. Underdeposit acid corrosion and hydrogen damage occur where boiler water acidifies as it concentrates beneath deposits on steam-generating surfaces. Hydrogen from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... boilers as a function of Cr+Ni concentration. Squares and diamonds are data from different test loops. Fig. 1 Surface of a waterwall showing circumferential grooving resembling alligator hide Fig. 2 Predicted corrosion rates of SA213-T2 (UNS K11547) alloy steel under different H 2 S...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... As a result, many operators have discovered serious cracking. The following example illustrates the problem ( Ref 11 ). Two deaerator vessels with associated boiler feedwater storage tanks operated in similar service at a refinery. The vertical deaerator vessels were constructed of carbon steel (shell...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., corrosion due to impurities in boiler feedwater and in high-pressure high-temperature steam needs to be addressed. Low-alloy steels used in the construction of chemical-processing plants are subject to corrosion from a wide variety of environments. Compounds of chlorine, sulfur, ammonia (NH 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... Discussion and diagrams of marine boilers can be found in several publications ( Ref 2 , 4 ). Steels, cast irons, stainless steels, and high-temperature alloys are used to construct various boiler components. Boiler construction materials conform to ASME International specifications ( Ref 5 , 6 ) or other...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... feedwater chemistry be controlled. A minimum pH of 8.5 is required to minimize corrosion attack on steel, with an optimal pH range of 9.2 to 9.5. For copper alloys, the preferred pH range is 8.5 to 9.2. Since both steel and copper alloys are common in boiler systems, a compromise range of 8.8 to 9.2...