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steam turbine blade erosion

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is carried out in a pipeline, rotating disk, or spray jet in the literature ( Ref 56 ). An example of an erosion test in a pipeline is shown in Fig. 10 . It consists of a boiler for steam generation, a cooling unit, and a test section where the test piece is located for the erosion test. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... components most susceptible to liquid impingement erosion are low-pressure turbine blades, low-temperature steam piping, and condenser and other heat-exchanger tubes that are subjected to direct impingement by wet steam. Liquid impingement erosion in tubing and piping is most likely when fluid velocities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Carburization and metal dusting Nitridation and carbonitridation Sulfidation Chloridation Steam generators or boilers use heat to convert water into steam for use in various applications. A primary application is electric power generation. Fuels used in most fossil-fuel steam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... processes include droplet impingement, solid-particle impingement, and cavitation erosion. Droplet erosion can occur in steam turbines when steam condensate forms droplets, or it can occur, for example, when supersonic aircraft encounter a rain field. At Mach 1, a rain droplet can be almost like a metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... and insights on the most common forms of corrosion observed with titanium alloys, including general corrosion, crevice corrosion, anodic pitting, hydrogen damage, stress-corrosion cracking, galvanic corrosion, corrosion fatigue, and erosion-corrosion. It also provides practical strategies for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... of composition, processing, design, fabrication, and external treatments on the corrosion of stainless steels. Various forms of corrosion, namely, general, galvanic, pitting, crevice, intergranular, stress-corrosion cracking, erosion-corrosion, and oxidation, are reviewed. Corrosion testing for...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... extended fan blade life three times, thus reducing costly maintenance time and downtime. Sintered alumina, SiC-based ceramics, and fused ceramics are the high-volume ceramic materials used in the material processing industry for wear and erosion-corrosion resistance. Table 1 shows a few basic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... However, the many alloys have been winnowed down over the years, and only a few are extensively used. Alloy usage is a function of industry (gas turbines, steam turbines, etc.). Not all alloys can be mentioned; examples of older and newer alloys will be used to demonstrate the physical metallurgy response...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... steam turbine are not exposed to the same service environment steam and temperature as are the airfoils. Comparing properties from the root and airfoil can provide useful information about service degradation of the exposed airfoils and identify damage characteristics. One of the most important...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... process piping and vessels Manufacturing: Steel components subjected to caustic environments in pulp and paper equipment, sensitized stainless steel piping in food processing or dairy industries Power generation: Alloy steel used for steam turbine rotors/discs, carbon and alloy steel components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... connecting a second metal to the system or as complex as necessary to evaluate the appropriate parameters. A change in the method of data interpretation is often all that is needed to convert conventional test methods into galvanic-corrosion tests. A tail rotor blade spar shank was constructed of 2014...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Vibration of system Failure mechanism Erosion-fatigue damage Laboratory examination of disk, thinning Consequences Inability to manufacture at normal production rates … The concept of life-cycle management refers to the idea of managing the service life of a system, structure, or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001264
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Mixer shafts Steel 38 1.5 Corrosion resistance Pumps and impellers Cast iron/steel 75 3.0 Corrosion and erosion resistance Heat exchangers Steel 75 3.0 Corrosion resistance Filters and components Steel 25 1.0 Corrosion and erosion resistance Turbine blades and rotor...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... thermal fatigue resistance) Gas, water, and steam turbines (the excellent cavitation, erosion, and oxidation resistance of the alloys) Aircraft fasteners (low density and ease of achieving the desired strength) Automotive turbochargers (high fatigue resistance and low density) Pistons and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... parts such as Si 3 N 4 gas turbine engine components. Pressures as high as 10 MPa (1.5 ksi) have been used. A less common approach is vacuum casting, in which a vacuum is applied to the outside of a mold. This process can be used to increase casting rates with either the drain or solid casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... hydrocarbon feedstock at a high temperature. In the regeneration section, the air nozzles suffer erosion from catalyst particles in high-temperature steam, and here, cobalt alloys offer a longer service life than the stainless steels. In thermowells used to protect thermocouples from attack by process streams...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... multiple cracks that appear brittle Gouging, abrasion, polishing, and erosion Galling or scoring in direction of motion Roughened areas with compacted, powdered debris (fretting) Smooth gradual transitions in wastage Multiple brittle-appearing fissures External surface and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... determining appropriate stability requirements. A rocket motor, for instance, may be required to operate only briefly, whereas a steam turbine is expected to operate for many years. In many applications, it is essential to avoid any and all failures that would require the equipment to be shut down for repairs...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... die life, particularly when forging high-temperature materials such as steel, titanium, and nickel alloys. Machines in this category use energy from a flywheel to turn a screw that drives the ram. Screw presses are used for precision-forging, steam-turbine, and jet-engine compressor blades...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... alternate to alloy 200 (N02200) in caustic environments, when the latter is not of sufficient strength. Alloy 600 was also used extensively in nuclear steam generators, until superseded by alloy 690 (N06690), which was found to be considerably more resistant to stress-corrosion cracking in pure water, at...