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steam turbine

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... Abstract This article illustrates typical wear and friction issues encountered in gas and steam turbines and their consequences as well as commonly adopted materials solutions. It contains tables that present the summary of wear and friction related issues encountered in steam turbines and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract The steam turbine is the simplest and most efficient engine for converting large amounts of heat energy into mechanical work. This article discusses the primary corrosion mechanisms such as corrosion fatigue, stress-corrosion cracking (SCC), pitting, corrosion, and erosion-corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract This article discusses some elevated-temperature properties of carbon steels and low-alloy steels with ferrite-pearlite and ferrite-bainite microstructures for use in boiler tubes, pressure vessels, and steam turbines. The selection of steels to be used at elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract The corrosion issues in the compressor, combustor and turbine sections of industrial gas turbines used in steam production generally depend on the quality of the fuel, air, and water used in the engine than on the specific industrial application. This article focuses on the forms of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... distinctions between the different forms of erosion. It discusses steam turbine blade erosion, aircraft rain erosion, and rain erosion of wind turbine blades. The article describes the mechanisms of liquid impact erosion and time dependence of erosion rate. It reviews critical empirical observations regarding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... dissolved solids always carry through with the steam. Also, at higher pressures, there is some vaporous carryover. Excessive carryover of impurities can damage superheaters, steam turbines, or downstream process equipment. Deposition and corrosion in boilers are controlled by water purification and...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...—is unable to escape, forms bubbles, and leads to permanent internal damage. The methane bubbles nucleate as carbides grow under methane pressure and link up to form fissures and cracks, as shown in Fig. 8 ( Ref 4 ). Such internal hydrogen cracks occurring in large steam turbine forgings are known...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... Abstract This article is concerned with gear tooth failures influenced by friction, lubrication, and wear, and especially those failure modes that occur in wind-turbine components. It provides a detailed discussion on wear (including adhesion, abrasion, polishing, fretting, and electrical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...) and ultrasupercritical (USC) power plants. These components include high-pressure steam piping and headers, superheater and reheater tubing, water wall tubing in the boiler, high-and intermediate-pressure rotors, rotating blades, and bolts in the turbine section. The article reviews the boiler alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... to the saturation temperature in an economizer, evaporation in the furnace, expansion work in the steam turbine, and condensation of the exhaust steam in a condenser. Steam cycle efficiency can be improved by adding superheater tubes to heat the steam above saturation temperatures. Reheat cycles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the turbine. It is possible to further increase the mean temperature of the heat addition by taking back partially expanded and reduced-temperature steam from the turbine to the boiler, reheating it, and reintroducing it to the turbine. As steam pressure and superheat temperature are increased above...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... , 1970 , p 31 – 39 46. Holmes J.W. and McClintock F.A. , Met. Trans. A , Vol 21A , 1990 , p 1209 – 1222 10.1007/BF02698251 47. Kriege O.H. and Boone D.H. , Mater. Eval. , Vol 32 , 1973 , p 38 – 44 48. Wells C.H. et al. , Proceedings of Steam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...-tubesheet joint heater shell IN STEAM TURBINE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION PLANTS, turbine exhaust steam is condensed, and the condensate is reheated for return as feedwater to the boiler. Water from the condenser to the feedwater pump is called condensate, and from the pump to the boiler it is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... includes rodding, drilling, sandblasting, pigging and scraping, turbining, and explosive removal. The thermal category includes steam cleaning. Chemical on-line cleaning was discussed previously. Some examples of mechanical on-line cleaning include: Side-stream filtration Air bumping of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... radiation fields. The article explains the primary side intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in different materials, namely, nickel-base alloys, high-strength nickel-base alloys, low-strength austenitic stainless steels, and high-strength stainless steels. The secondary side corrosion in steam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... associated with the nitrate stress-corrosion cracking in heat-recovery steam generators are also discussed. The article presents general comments on the materials selection; plant operation; use of neutralizing additives; and maintenance, good housekeeping, and lagging (insulation). It concludes with...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article explains the main types and characteristic causes of failures in boilers and other equipment in stationary and marine power plants that use steam as the working fluid with examples. It focuses on the distinctive features of each type that enable the failure analyst to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... through the U-tubes, where it gives up heat to the secondary coolant at the shell side, to the outlet side of the primary head, where the flow splits and leaves through two outlet nozzles. Saturated steam produced in the steam generators is passed to the turbine. Each steam generator contains 11,012...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
..., mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical and their effectiveness and applicability. The mechanical cleaning methods include grinding, brushing, steam or flame jet cleaning, abrasive blasting, and tumbling. Solvent cleaning, emulsion cleaning, alkaline cleaning, acid cleaning, pickling, and descaling are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... also describes the special cleaning procedures for aluminum alloys, such as steam cleaning and rotary wire-brush cleaning. The article reviews the use of temporary coatings and the use of maintenance coatings on aluminum. It provides information on the handling and storage procedures of aluminum alloys...