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steam generator tubes

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 10 Photographs of a ruptured Inconel 600 steam generator tube. (a) Tube rupture. (b) SEM fractograph showing the IG fracture surface. (c) Micrograph showing the IG attack that extended from the OD surface More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 10 Photographs of a ruptured Inconel 600 steam generator tube. (a) Tube rupture. (b) Scanning electron microscopy fractograph showing the intergranular (IG) fracture surface. (c) Micrograph showing the IG attack that extended from the outside diameter surface More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 6 Worldwide causes of steam generator tube plugging. SCC (ID), primary side SCC; SCC/IGA, outside surface SCC/IGA. Source: Ref 28 More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 15 Steam generator tube support designs. (a) Drilled without flow holes. (b) Drilled with flow holes. (c) Broached trefoil. (d) Broached quatrefoil (concave contact lands). (e) Egg crate (lattice bars) More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 17 Intergranular attack of an Alloy 600 steam generator tube (etched sample). Source: Ref 15 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a case history on IG fracture of steam generator tubes, where a lowering of the operating temperature was proposed to reduce failures. dimpled intergranular fracture grain boundaries hydrogen embrittlement intergranular brittle cracking intergranular fatigue intergranular stress-corrosion...
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 7 Distribution of heats of Alloy 600 by susceptibility to intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC) on the primary side of steam generator tube roll transitions in three steam generators (SG1, SG2, SG3) of the same plant. Source: Ref 1 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... the steam generator tubes, and then recirculated to the nuclear core. The interconnecting primary piping is made of austenitic stainless steel, typically type 304L, while the steam generator tubes are usually fabricated from a nickel-base alloy such as Alloy 600 and more recently, Alloy 690, or in some...
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 19 Sketch of fouled steam generator (SG) tube/tube support plate (TSP) crevices after many years of operation. Source: Ref 84 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 9 Cross-section schematic drawing of a steam generator showing U-tube bundle More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 9 Cross-sectional schematic drawing of a steam generator showing U-tube bundle More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... fuel cladding Late 1950s and early 1960s BWR IGSCC of type 304 stainless steel during construction Late 1960s IGSCC of furnace-sensitized type 304 during BWR operation Late 1960s IGSCC in U-bend region of PWR steam generator Early 1970s Denting of PWR alloy 600 steam generator tubing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and fouling, and fabrication defects, which include most incidents of poor workmanship, improper material, and defective material, together account for more than 75% of all failures of steam-power-plant equipment. Most steam-generator failures occur in pressurized components, that is, the tubing, piping...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... steam generators, low-pressure steam turbines, and feedwater heaters have been traced to condensers that have leaked and allowed contamination of the steam condensate with raw cooling water and air. Most tube leaks are caused by corrosion, but some tube failures are purely mechanical, such as those...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., and it is normally associated with unwelded rolled joints and welds that are not stress relieved. Caustic stress-corrosion cracking at a rolled tube joint generally requires a roll leak that produces very high caustic concentrations at this location when the boiler water flashes to steam. On metallographic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...) and ultrasupercritical (USC) power plants. These components include high-pressure steam piping and headers, superheater and reheater tubing, water wall tubing in the boiler, high-and intermediate-pressure rotors, rotating blades, and bolts in the turbine section. The article reviews the boiler alloys, used in SC and USC...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., such as in the following example. In this case, a lowering of the operating temperature was proposed to reduce failures in a steam generator. Example 1: Intergranular Fracture of Steam Generator Tubes <xref rid="a0003540-ref30" ref-type="bibr">(Ref 30)</xref> Power plants use steam generators, which have hot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or for heating purposes. Most boiler/steam generator failures occur in pressurized components, such as the tubing, piping, headers, and pressure vessels that constitute the steam-generating portion of the system. With very few exceptions, failure of pressurized components is confined to relatively small...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides information on the development of finite element analysis (FEA) and describes the general-purpose applications of FEA software programs in structural and thermal, static and transient, and linear and nonlinear analyses. It discusses special-purpose finite element...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... copper and iron oxides from a boiler while it is intermittently fired. Another chelating agent is the CitroSolv Process, which uses inhibited ammoniated citric acid to dissolve iron oxides and sometimes copper in utility steam generators (patent for Pfizer, also expired.) Chelating agents can often...