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steady-state heat conduction

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... surface. This article discusses the strategies for implementing thermography for NDE, including the steady-state/whole-body approach and transient heat conduction. It describes the most common signal-processing methods, such as thermographic signal reconstruction, lock-in thermography, and pulsed-phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Thermal nondestructive evaluation (TNDE) is an indirect process, so that regardless of the form of energy used to excite the sample, interaction with the internal structure of a part occurs through the process of heat conduction. This article discusses the steady-state configuration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... 0.08 0.046 Gases Hydrogen 0.18 0.10 Air 0.026 0.015 Nitrogen 0.026 0.015 Steam 0.018 0.01 Freon F-12 0.0097 0.0056 Note: (1 W/(m · °C) = 0.5778 Btu/(h · ft · °F). Source: Ref 1 One-Dimensional Steady-State Heat Conduction Neither the heat flow rate nor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Gases Hydrogen 0.18 0.10 Air 0.026 0.015 Nitrogen 0.026 0.015 Steam 0.018 0.01 Freon F-12 0.0097 0.0056 Note: (1 W/(m ·°C) = 0.5778 Btu/(h · ft · °F). Source: Ref 1 One-Dimensional Steady-State Heat Conduction Neither the heat flow rate nor the temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... conductivity measurement methods are generally made under steady- state conditions. Transient methods actually are determinations of the thermal diffusivity, from which the thermal conductivity may be derived. These are described later in this article. To perform this derivation, specific heat and density must...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... finite. The isotherms will then degenerate into surfaces that are parallel to the welding x -direction, and conduction of heat will then occur exclusively in the directions normal to the x -axis. The pseudo-steady-state temperature distribution is then given by the following equation: (Eq 7) T...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... phenomena. Therefore, analysis of electromagnetics in the ESR process is performed for the periodic steady state, and the cycle-averaged values of the Lorentz force and Joule heating are used in the analysis of the flow and the temperature fields. (Note that the electrochemical reactions taking place...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... ) implemented the Eulerian formulation and demonstrated its advantages ( Fig. 1 – 5 ). The spatial frame enables longer time steps to be taken as the weld approaches steady state. Transient versus Steady State In a spatial frame that is tied to the heat source, the temperature near the arc of a long weld...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001480
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... ). The spatial frame enables longer time steps to be taken as the weld approaches steady state. Transient Versus Steady State In a spatial frame that is tied to the heat source, a long weld parallel to the prismatic axis of a prismatic body soon reaches a steady state. Indeed, the Rosenthal solution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... with unknown conductivity to a material of known conductivity. Some examples of steady-state methods are very briefly described. Concentric Cylinder Method The sample is placed in an annulus between two concentric cylinders, and a known heat flux ( q ) is applied. The temperature difference (Δ T...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005912
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... or after having been cycled in operation can impact the product being essed. For example, ceramic susceptors may crack over time even at steady-state temperature, causing ceramic particles to be ejected onto a heated product and possibly causing product defects. Degradation of a graphite susceptor from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... side of Eq 2 indicates that the heat flux is positive in the direction of the negative gradient. In other words, heat flows in the direction of the temperature drop (from the higher temperature region to the lower temperature region). Steady-State Conduction Heat Transfer for Some Common Shapes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... involves steady-state determinations, and Eq 5 involves transient determinations. Relatively large errors have been documented for steady-state determinations, even under good conditions ( Ref 11 ). Because specific heat and density (expansion) measurements are straightforward, and because diffusivity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4F
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v4F.a0007008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-450-5
... quenching, or spray cooling. The energy equation is not solved; therefore, fluid flow is under isothermal and time-averaged steady-state conditions. Table 2 also shows modeling categories that have intermediate characteristics between pure heat transfer and pure fluid flow analysis. Category 2 refers...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... Abstract Cutting tool wear is a production management problem for manufacturing industries. It occurs along the cutting edge and on adjacent surfaces. This article describes steady-state wear mechanisms, tertiary wear mechanisms, and tool replacement. It provides information on tool failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Abstract This article presents effective stress equations that are based on the von Mises criterion, the Tresca criterion, and the Huddleston criterion. It describes the calculation of effective stresses for different cases: elastic stresses, steady-state creep stresses, stresses in a fully...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... pivalic acid, were studied in detail. Data from several hundred experiments allowed assessment of solidification, including the steady-state dendritic tip radius, growth speed, and supercooling. Specifically, the basic conduction/diffusion theory of heat and mass transfer from a growing dendrite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005877
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... with the displacement current could be neglected ( Ref 1 ). For induction heating processes the condition equation ( Eq 5 ) always is satisfied ( Ref 1 ). This can be checked for a simple case. The electric conductivity of a heated metal (γ) is on the order of at least 10 6 S/m. Even if the frequency of field current...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... associated with that. The article describes the advantages and disadvantages of various finite-element modeling approaches, namely, transient models, continuous cutting model, steady-state model, hybrid model, two-dimensional models, and three-dimensional models. It discusses flow stress measurements using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005878
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... of the necessity of such problem for- The Fourier-Kirchhoff equation in cylindrical mulation occurs in the application of induction For steady-state: coordinates for solid nonmoving bodies can be heating in medical treatment of human bodies written as: (Ref 2). @T @t ¼ 0 (Eq 2) The temperature eld...